Developing a Universal System of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports as Response to Intervention Howard Muscott, Ed.D. , Director NH Center for Effective Behavioral Interventions and Supports www.nhcebis.seresc.net ; 206-6891; firstname.lastname@example.org
Support for NH RESPONDSis provided by the NH Bureau of Special Education, NH Department of Education under a grant from the US Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services
NH RESPONDS Lead Partners • NH Department of Education- Bureau of Special Education • NH Center for Effective Behavioral Interventions and Supports at SERESC • Expertise in Positive Behavior Supports • Expertise in integration of mental health and school supports • Institute on Disability at University of NH • Expertise in Literacy within an RtI model • Expertise in PBIS and Intensive Interventions (RENEW) for Secondary Transition and Dropout Prevention
Behavior Strand B Agenda • Welcome and Preview the Day • Research, Beliefs and Conundrums • Steps in Implementing Universal PBIS Systems of Behavior Support • Building Universal Teams • Developing Outcomes • Developing Behavioral Expectations in Context • Lunch, Graduation and Posters • Action Planning
Outcomes for Today • To provide school teams with knowledge and skills to design proactive, positive, and predictable universal systems of discipline. • To assess the capacity of each school to deliver effective behavioral interventions and supports. • To complete two process assessments to address team readiness and RtI for behavior features • To create a action plan that will move each school closer to the goal of implementing PBIS with fidelity.
Behavior Strand B Assumptions • This strand is for schools who have already obtained readiness and a commitment to adopt PBIS as a multi-tiered RtI system for behavior support. • Strand B presumes participants do not need to be convinced of the need for a multi-tiered system of behavior support. • Strand B assumes that teams have come ready to learn the knowledge and skills that will enable them to build the universal tier.
We Know that Schools are Faced with Increasing Challenges The Challenge of Educating an Increasingly Diverse Student Population The Challenge of Providing a Safe, Orderly, and Positive School Climate Conducive to Learning The Challenge of Improving Academic Achievement The Challenge of Producing Students Capable of Competing within a Global Economy The Challenge of Accomplishing These Outcomes with Diminishing Resources
Guiding Principle: Social Behavior and Achievement are Linked To improve the academic success of our children, we must also improve their social success. Academic and social failures are reciprocally and inextricably related. As a result, systems to support behavior and literacy should be integrated
Guiding Principle: How Full is Your Plate? Schools and educators are bombarded with changing mandates, competing and multiple initiatives and a train and hope approach to professional development that is not aligned to a few core priorities and outcomes
Guiding Principle: How Full is Your Plate? We believe implementation requires programs to be thoughtful in determining a small number of priorities and using a train and sustain approach to align professional development activities to those few core priorities and outcomes
Guiding Principle: RtI Implementation Starts from Where You Are It’s a process, not a curriculum It’s a roadmap with a set of guiding principles It requires buy-in and commitment from staff, administration and SD leadership
Responsiveness to Intervention (RtI)Batsche et al. (2006) RtI is defined as “the practice of providing high-quality instruction and interventions matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals, and applying child response data to important educational decisions.”
Responsiveness to Intervention A systematic framework for improving social, emotional, behavioral & academic outcomes for children in K-12 schools & ECE Programs. A broad set of evidence-based systemic & individualized strategies to effectively prevent & respond to academic and behavioral problems. A strategic approach in which collaborative teams use effective group processes & data-based decision-making to achieve desired outcomes.
What is Response to Intervention? National Center on Response to Interventionwww.rti4success.org • Response to intervention: • Integrates assessment & intervention within a multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement & reduce behavior problems. • Schools using RtI: • Identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes • Monitor student progress • Provide evidence-based interventions • Adjust the intensity and nature of those interventions depending on a student’s responsiveness
Responsiveness to Intervention The ultimate goal of an RtI model is a comprehensive and integrated approach to academic and behavior support for all students.
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports-NH is Response to Intervention for Behavior
Systemic Process of RtI Literacy Behavior • Universal Interventions • All students • Core curriculum • Preventive, proactive 80%-90% • Targeted, Group Interventions • Some students (at risk) • Additional instruction • Progress monitoring • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual students • Specifically tailored instruction • Progress monitoring 5%-10% 1%-5% Secondary Transition for high school
A 3-Tier ApproachLevel 1 • Primary prevention for the whole population • Differentiated instruction to reach 80-90% of students • The purposes of universal strategies are to • maximize achievement, • prevent future difficulty, and • increase positive interactions (success) with people and learning.
Tier 1 – Universal Whole School, All students, Screening and Early Identification Behavior Expectations Promotion of positive behavior (define, teach, recognize) Response to problem behavior (define behaviors and response processes) Literacy Standards Word ID Language Comprehension Print Processing Data Weekly data reports of problem behavior; Attendance, Periodic self-assessments Tools Explicit instruction/modeling Systematic instruction/skill-building Ample practice opportunities Immediate corrective feedback Differentiated instruction Continuous assessment Data DIBELS NWEA AIMSweb Other Tools Research-based literacy curriculum Classroom-wide and small group Benchmark assessment Data-driven instruction Tools Matrix of expected behaviors Teaching plan and practice Recognition plan Problem behavior definitions Response process Reporting/Data collection Movement to Tier 2 supported by effective decision rules, goal-setting, progress monitoring, fidelity of implementation, use of evidence-based instruments and linkage to specific skill deficits
SYSTEMS 1. Universal Team and Processes 2. Communication with Staff and Families Primary Prevention: Universal Approaches 8. Systematic Screening 3. Schoolwide Expectations for All Locations DATA 9. Data-Based Decision Making 4. Classroom Management 7. Responding to Problem Behavior PRACTICES 5. Teach Expectations in Locations 6. Recognize Students for Exhibiting Expected Behaviors Muscott & Mann (2006)
A 3-Tier ApproachLevel 2 • Increase opportunities for struggling students to succeed by providing additional time, strategies, approaches and tools • Structured secondary interventions to meet needs of at-risk youth through group interventions and targeted core instruction • Increased monitoring of targeted skills to measure intervention progress
Tier 2 – Targeted Small Groups and Individual Supports Based on Similarities of Needs and Data Literacy Additional group instruction time to address specific skill needs Behavior Social contracting Targeted group interventions based on function of behavior Data Weekly data reports of problem behavior or prosocial behavior Progress monitoring of group interventions Periodic self-assessments Tools Social contracting Check-In, Check-Out PASS (Preparing and Supporting Self-Managers) And other group interventions Functional Behavioral Assessment and Support Tools Diagnostic assessment Small groups based on specific skill needs (e.g., comprehension, sight word recognition, vocabulary) Data DIBELS AIMSweb Other Movement to Tier 3 or 1 supported by effective decision rules, goal-setting, progress monitoring, fidelity of implementation, use of evidence-based instruments and linkage to specific skill deficits
SYSTEMS 1. Targeted Team and Processes 2. Data-Based Decision Making DATA Secondary Prevention Targeted Approaches A Function-Based Perspective 3. Communication with Staff and Families 8. Behavior Support Planning 7. Functional Assessment 4. Early Identification and Referral Processes Muscott & Mann (2007) 6. Targeted Group Interventions 5. Teacher Check, Connect, Expect PRACTICES SAU/District-wide Administrative Team Universal Primary Prevention
A 3-Tier ApproachLevel 3 • Targets the 1-5% who are not responding to Tier I and Tier II efforts. • Intensive strategies or programs delivered in small group or 1:1 in addition to core instruction • Increased monitoring of targeted skills to measure intervention progress • Student-centered and adapted to meet individual needs.
Tier 3 – Intensive Individual Assistance Focused on Needs and Data Literacy Additional individual instruction time to address specific skill needs Behavior Individualized plan for behavior supports Tools One-on-one instruction Explicit instruction/modeling Systematic instruction/skill-building Ample practice opportunities Immediate corrective feedback Alternative Education Planning (HS) Data Weekly data reports of problem behavior Progress monitoring of student Periodic self-assessments Student Progress Tracker (HS) Tools Functional behavioral Assessment Behavior Support Plan Person-Centered Planning Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) Wraparound RENEW School-to Career Planning (HS) Alternative Education Plans (HS) Data DIBELS AIMSweb Diagnostic Assessment
1. Conflict Cycle 8. Wraparound PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Practices Muscott, Mann & Berk (2007) 7. Person-Centered Planning 2. Escalating Behavior Cycle 3. Intensive FBA & Behavior Support Plans 6. Referrals to Community Services 5. Communicating with Families 4. Life Space Crisis Intervention Building Relationships
“I’ve been waiting for this for 30 years in public education.” NH Teacher
New Hampshire’s System of Care and Education School-wide and General Education Classroom Systems for Preventative Instructional and Behavior Management Practices Systematic Screening Promote Positive Parent Contact Efficient Systematic Intervention for Students Who Do Not Respond to SW and Classroom Prevention and Response Systems Teacher Check, Connect Expect Array of Evidence-Based Group Interventions Addressing Prevalent Functions of Behavior Available for Students Who Don’t Respond to SW and Teacher Check, Connect Expect Mann & Muscott (2007) Function-Based Support Planning (Functional Assessment and Intervention Planning) Available for SW and Group non-responders School-based Intensive Supports Coordinator Intensive Behavior Support Plans and Crisis Intervention Linkages to Wrap-NH Facilitation School-based Intensive Supports Linkages to Community-based Supports Linkages to Case Centered Collaboratives
PBIS-NH Support Systems Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior OUTCOMES DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
PBIS-NH Logic Model Muscott (2007) PBIS Systems, Data & Practices Implemented with Fidelity Safe, Orderly, Predictable & Positive Learning Environment Early Identification of At-Risk Students Differentiated Interventions including Relationship Building Reductions in Problem Behavior/Increases in Prosocial Behavior Increased Time for Effective Teaching, Learning & Relationships Increased Academic Achievement & School Success Improved School Climate Improved Faculty and Staff Morale and Sense of Efficacy
Establishing a Social Culture in SchoolsHorner (2007) Common Language MEMBERSHIP Common Experience Common Vision/Values
Which can be embraced by faculty, administration, students, families, and community members initially with Words which develop into Actions or Behaviors and then become Habits through Practice to ultimately form Climate or Culture Supporting systemic change in a school community is a long-term journey that begins with dreams and ideas.
“With PBIS, as the students move through the grade levels they find that the rules are the same, the cues are the same and the consequences are the same. By the time they reach grade four, students are able to self-monitor their behaviors and work out many of the conflicts that previously required so much teacher time.” Kathleen Custer Principal James Mastricola Elementary School Merrimack
Cultural ConundrumsMuscott & Mann (2007) • A conundrum is a puzzle, mystery or challenge • Beliefs present Cultural Conundrums for programs, schools and families • These conundrums become barriers if not “put on the table” and worked through • Left unattended, they present the potential to undermine efforts • People get frustrated, upset or apathetic • They can split a program or school staff • They require strategic and systems thinking to address • They are an important factor in determining successful vs. unsuccessful implementation
How Full is Your Plate? • We know that programs can only address a few priorities or at a time • We understand that some programs pile on many initiatives, while others limit priorities • We believe PBIS implementation requires programs to be thoughtful in prioritizing or aligning efforts
An Ounce of Prevention or a Pound of Detention? • We know teaching behavior is an effective form of prevention even if we feel the students should already know how to behave • We understand that most discipline systems in school are reactive and that some people in your program or school see little need for teaching behaviors while others understand that regardless of whether students should know how to behave, teaching the expectations to all students in the school or program is required • We believe in a preventive instructional approach where teaching the expectations to all students is the cornerstone of the program
Consistent = Identical or Effective? • We know that effective programs are predictable and consistent • We understand that some see consistency as using identical strategies for everyone, while others understand the need for a consistent approach with flexible strategies • We believe in a consistent approach where the goal is to find effective strategies to change behavior
To Recognize or To Ignore? • We know that increasing positive contacts and recognizing students for expected behavior creates a positive climate and increases the chances students will behave as expected • We understand that some see little value in recognizing students for behaviors they should already know while others understand that recognition is a fundamental human need at any age • We believe that high rates of positive contacts and recognizing expected behaviors create a welcoming and caring learning environment
Parents as Partners? • We know that parental involvement is a fundamental pillar of effective programs • We understand that some see parents as the problem while others see them as part of the solution • We believe that parents are important partners and we encourage programs to actively engage all types of parents in decision-making
One Size Fits All? • We know there are three types of students: typical, those at risk for developing behavior problems, and those with intense and chronic needs • We understand that some believe that if we only get rid of the “bad” students this place would great, while others understand this approach fails to support many students who are worth our efforts and can be reclaimed. • We believe that we don’t have a child to waste and that building comprehensive systems that work are in everyone’s best interest.
The Carrot vs. the Stick! • We know that negative consequences are only effective when coupled with positive approaches • We understand that some people see negative consequences as the answer to all problem behavior while others understand that negative consequences in the absence of a caring, positive climate invariably alienates many students • We believe that positive relationships with students increases the likelihood that negative consequences when used, will be effective
Conundrum Activity • Who: Universal Team • What: Review the list of conundrums and identify 2 or 3 that most apply to your school or will come up early in implementation. Answer the question, How do you know? Indicate the level of effort (high, medium, low) you believe it will require to address these conundrums? • Timeframe: 20 minutes • Report Out: Brief comments
“I was very skeptical about this program at first. I thought, here we go again – another initiative. But I can honestly say that teaching is much easier with PBIS in place – I am now sold on this approach.” Barbara Condon, Elementary School Teacher, Merrimack school district
Typical PBIS-NH Sequence Year 4 Fine tune intensive; plan sustainability; Celebrate
Generic Schedule for Universal PBIS-NH Planning Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Assemble Univ. Team Draft behavioral expectations Involve faculty in self-assessments of classroom and non-classroom management features Plan the initial kickoff and teaching series Collaborative Team checklist Draft behavioral matrix Define major and minor problem behaviors Develop specific strategies for teaching specific behaviors in specific locations Universal Implementation checklist Conduct EBS survey with faculty Develop or revise the office referral form Determine the recognition plan to be used and how to encourage its consistent use Determine action plans Finalize expectations and matrix Map the plans for rolling out PBIS to students, faculty and families Define problem behavior referral process Rollout! Apply for a SWIS license Complete and action plan the Working Smarter Inventory as necessary to eliminate duplication of effort Have you determined how you will keep the team and the faculty on the same page? Are your team processes effective? If not, go back to ground rules and the Collaborative Team checklist. At each stage, ask “Is it appropriate for families to be involved?” If the answer is yes, what is your plan? Determine sources, and use, of data for decision-making
Steps for Implementing Universal Systems in PBIS-NH 1. Build a universal leadership team and create a mission statement Representative and Influential 2. Identify internal coach(es) Capacity for Behavior Support 3. Self evaluate building strengths and needs Collaborative Team Checklist, Universal Team Implementation Checklist, Family Engagement Checklist, Effective Behavioral Support Survey
Steps for Implementing Universal Systems in PBIS-NH 4. Establish a clear set of positively stated behavioral expectations Schoolwide Expectations 5. Clearly define expected behaviors for classroom, non-classroom and home* settings (bus, bathroom, hallway/transition, playground, morning routine, TV, sleep) Behavioral Matrix Home Matrix * Optional 6. Establish procedures for teaching expected behavior in context and practice Teaching Matrix Cool Tools/Teaching Scripts Teaching Scripts in Context
Steps for Implementing Universal Systems in PBIS-NH 7. Establish a continuum to acknowledge/ celebrate expected behaviors Reinforcement/Acknowledgement Plan 8. Align classroom management and management of nonclassroom setting to schoolwide system Classroom Management Non Classroom Management Self-Assessments
Steps for Implementing Universal Systems in PBIS-NH 9. Develop Procedures for Responding to Problem Behavior a. Definitions of Problem Behaviors (Majors vs. Minors) b. Office Discipline Referral Form or Form for Recording Problem Behaviors c. Process for Responding to Problem Behaviors d. Consequences (Punishments, Reteaching) for Problem Behaviors
Steps for Implementing Universal Systems in PBIS-NH 10. Identify an efficient school or program-wide data management system and align to procedures for responding to or discouragingproblem behavior