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Howard Muscott, Ed.D., Eric Mann, LICSW and Michelle Lewis

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Howard Muscott, Ed.D., Eric Mann, LICSW and Michelle Lewis

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  1. Developing a Tier III System of Response to Intervention for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Day 1 of 2March 14, 2011SERESC Howard Muscott, Ed.D., Eric Mann, LICSW and Michelle Lewis NH Center for Effective Behavioral Interventions & Supports at SERESC www.nhcebis.seresc.net 206-6891 hmuscott@seresc.net; 206-8820 emann@seresc.net

  2. Support for NH RESPONDSis provided by the NH Bureau of Special Education, NH Department of Education under a grant from the US Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services

  3. NH RESPONDS Lead Partners • NH Dept. of Education- Bureau of Special Education • NH Center for Effective Behavioral Interventions and Supports at SERESC • Expertise in Positive Behavior Supports • Expertise in integration of mental health and school supports • Institute on Disability at University of NH • Expertise in Literacy within an RtI model • Expertise in PBIS and Intensive Interventions (RENEW) for Secondary Transition and Dropout Prevention • Parent Information Center • Expertise in effective parent involvement and communications

  4. Agenda for Day One • Preview the Training • Readiness for Tier III • Tier III Systems, Data & Practices • Tier III Teams • Responding to Escalating Student Behavior • School to Community Mental Health Protocols • Tier III Checklist and Action Planning

  5. Outcomes • To be able to describe the features of a tertiary system of supports • To self-assess Tier III supports • To identify the membership and roles of Tier III teams • To describe the conflict & escalating behavior cycles • To describe strategies for engaging families • To describe a school to mental health protocol

  6. Responsiveness to Intervention (RtI)Batsche et al. (2006) RtI is defined as “the practice of providing high-quality instruction and interventions matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals, and applying child response data to important educational decisions.”

  7. Guiding Principle: Social Behavior and Achievement are Linked • To improve the academic success of our children, we must also improve their social success. • Academic and social failures are reciprocally and inextricably related. • As a result, systems to support behavior and literacy should be integrated.

  8. Systemic Process of RtI Literacy Behavior • Universal Interventions • All students • Core curriculum • Preventive, proactive 80%-90% • Targeted, Group Interventions • Some students (at risk) • Additional instruction • Progress monitoring • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual students • Specifically tailored instruction • Progress monitoring 5%-10% 1%-5% Secondary Transition for high school

  9. Tier 1 – Universal Whole School, All students, Screening and Early Identification School Culture Behavior Expectations Promotion of Positive Behavior (define, teach, recognize) Response to problem behavior (define behaviors and response processes) Literacy Standards Word ID Language Comprehension Print Processing Data Weekly data reports of problem behavior; Attendance, Periodic self-assessments Tools Explicit instruction/modeling Systematic instruction/skill-building Ample practice opportunities Immediate corrective feedback Differentiated instruction Continuous assessment Data DIBELS NWEA AIMSweb Other Tools Research-based literacy curriculum Classroom-wide and small group Benchmark assessment Data-driven instruction Tools Matrix of expected behaviors Teaching plan and practice Recognition plan Problem behavior definitions Response process Reporting/Data collection Movement to Tier 2 supported by effective decision rules, goal-setting, progress monitoring, fidelity of implementation, use of evidence-based instruments and linkage to specific skill deficits

  10. Tier 2 – Targeted Small Groups and Individual Supports Based on Similarities of Needs and Data Literacy Additional group instruction time to address specific skill needs Behavior Teacher Check, Connect, Expect Targeted group interventions based on skills and function of behavior Data Weekly data reports of problem behavior or prosocial behavior Progress monitoring of group interventions Periodic self-assessments Tools TCCE Check-In, Check-Out PASS (Preparing and Supporting Self-Managers) And other group interventions Tools Diagnostic assessment Small groups based on specific skill needs (e.g., comprehension, sight word recognition, vocabulary) Data DIBELS AIMSweb Other Movement to Tier 3 or 1 supported by effective decision rules, goal-setting, progress monitoring, fidelity of implementation, use of evidence-based instruments and linkage to specific skill deficits

  11. Parents as Partners? • We know that parental involvement is a fundamental pillar of effective programs • We understand that some see parents as the problem while others see them as part of the solution • We believe that parents are important partners and we encourage programs to actively engage all types of parents in decision-making

  12. Communicating with Families and Faculty • It is important to establish a culture that supports both family and faculty involvement, engagement, positive communication and collaborative decision-making • Establishing such a culture as expected practice helps promote stakeholder engagement as an outcome • Effective communication implies that there are regular and frequent opportunities to: • Provide information • Gather feedback to gain consensus and shared ownership regarding the design, implementation and evaluation of the program.

  13. Family Involvement • How have you communicated to families about Tier 1 and Tier 2? • How have families been part of the Tier 1 and Tier 2 planning and infrastructure building?

  14. Tier 3 – Intensive Individual Assistance Focused on Needs and Data Literacy Additional individual instruction time to address specific skill needs Behavior Individualized planning for behavior supports Tools One-on-one instruction Explicit instruction/modeling Systematic instruction/skill-building Ample practice opportunities Immediate corrective feedback Alternative Education Planning (HS) Data Weekly data reports of problem behavior Progress monitoring of student Periodic self-assessments Student Progress Tracker (HS) Tools Functional Behavioral Assessment Behavior Support Plan Person-Centered Planning Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) Wraparound RENEW School-to Career Planning (HS) Alternative Education Plans (HS) Data DIBELS AIMSweb Diagnostic Assessment

  15. Intensive Systems of Behavior Support Muscott, Mann & Berk (2006) School-Based Systems MAST-NH Community- Based Systems Family & Youth Systems

  16. PBIS-NH Tertiary Supports Supporting Decision Making OUTCOMES Supporting Adults DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Students and Families

  17. 1. Tier III Teams PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Systems Muscott & Mann (2010) 4. Facilitated Referral Processes to Community- Based Supports 2. School-Based Activation Processes 3. De-escalation Response Team Universal Primary Prevention SAU/ District-wide Administrative Team Targeted Secondary Prevention

  18. 8. RENEW for HS 1. Conflict Cycle 7. Wraparound PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Practices Muscott, Mann & Berk (2007) 2. Escalating Behavior Cycle 6. Person-Centered Planning 3. Life Space Crisis Intervention 5. Intensive FBA & Behavior Support Plans 4. Engaging Families Building Relationships

  19. 1. Data-Based Decision Making PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Data Muscott, Mann & Berk (2007) 6. Consumer Satisfaction/Social Validity 2. Process Outcomes 5. Improvements in Staff Quality of Life 3. Implementation with Fidelity 4. Improvements in Youth and Family Quality of Life

  20. 1. Tier III Teams PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Systems Muscott & Mann (2010) Universal Primary Prevention SAU/ District-wide Administrative Team Targeted Secondary Prevention

  21. Shared leadership through the activities of a leadership team is an essential element of successful implementation and sustainability of a variety of innovative educational reforms and practices such as PBIS, RtI, urban school reform, and inclusive education. • Artiles, Kozleski, Dorn, & Christensen, 2006; Burns &Ysseldyke, 2005; Jorgensen, Schuh, & Nisbet, 2006; Katzman, Gandhi, Harbour, & LaRock, 2005; Kozleski & Smith, 2005; Villa & Thousand, 2005; Warren et al., 2004

  22. Composition of the School RTI Tier III Oversight Team by Role • Administrator(s) • Curriculum/Assessment Director • Guidance Counselor • General Education Classroom Teachers • Special Education Teachers • Behavior Specialist/Guidance/Psychologist • Reading/Literacy Specialist • Title I Coordinator/ELL /ESOL/ Other Specialists • Data People • Family Member (i.e., infrastructure stage)

  23. Tier III- Family Involvement • Participation and design of the Oversight Team (the infrastructure) • Engagement with the Tier 3 Implementation team • Two-way, meaningful communication (with all families) about the RtI System

  24. Roles of the School RTI Tier III Oversight Team • Lead the Tier III system • Meet regularly • Access current Tier III interventions and supports • Design and implement Tier III system with interventions matched to student needs • Train, coach, and support teachers in academic and behavior interventions • Provide progress monitoring of interventions

  25. Roles of the School RTI Tier III Oversight Team • Design, collect, analyze data and use data based decision making to inform Tier III process • Monitoring for fidelity of implementation and efficacy of interventions • Communicate with key stakeholders (Universal/targeted team, parents/ families/staff) • Refine and sustain Tier III system using current data

  26. Types of RTI Tier III Implementation Teams • Personalized teams created for the individual student including family • Tier III oversight team may serve this purpose for some students as long as family involvement is included • The Tier III Team should work in coordination with an existing IEP team

  27. Roles of RTI Tier III Implementation Teams • Develop effective and efficient Tier III services matched to student needs • Weekly progress monitoring • Working collaboratively and communicating with family to support student • Ongoing communication with Tier III oversight team & IEP team

  28. RtI, Tier III, and Special Education • Memo from US Dept of Ed 1.21.11 re: RTI and evaluation for eligibility under IDEA • “A multi-tiered instructional framework , often referred to as RTI, is a school-wide approach that addresses the needs of all students, including struggling learners and students with disabilities….” • “OSEP supports implementation of RTI strategies to ensure that children who are struggling academically & behaviorally are identified early and provided needed interventions in a timely and effective manner.”

  29. RtI, Tier III, and Special Education • Memo from US Dept of Ed 1.21.11 Cont. • “The use of RTI strategies cannot be used to delay or deny the provision of a full and individual evaluation, pursuant to 34 CFR §§300.304-300.311, to a child suspected of having a disability under 34 CFR §300.8.” • “It would be inconsistent with the evaluation provisions at 34 CFR §§300.301 through 300.111 for an LEA to reject a referral and delay provision of an initial evaluation on the basis that a child has not participated in an RTI framework.”

  30. Effective Tier 3 Team Norms and Group Processes • Roles and responsibilities defined • Meeting ground rules are established • Agendas are prepared • Decision-making is formalized • A strategic problem solving approach is used • Action plans with tasks, timelines and accountability are developed • Data is used for decision-making • Conflicts are resolved constructively and professionally

  31. Tier III Team Activity Who: Each school “group” What: Choose ONE activity • Identify members of the Tier III oversight team • Discuss how the Tier III team would be activated if a student needs more than Tier I & II • Discuss what additional information would be needed in addition to what has been collected at Tiers I & II • Discuss how Tier III team would work with an existing IEP team Time: 15 minutes Post or Report Out: Volunteers

  32. PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Systems Muscott & Mann (2010) 2. School-Based Activation Processes Universal Primary Prevention SAU/ District-wide Administrative Team Targeted Secondary Prevention

  33. What Makes an Effective School-Based Activation Process? • The process clearly identifies the sequence of activities. • The process clearly identifies who is eligible. • The process differentiates one type of service or support from another. • The process is written down on paper in either graphic form (e.g., flowchart) and/or narrative form. • The process includes the type of information needed to make a referral. • The process indicates where parents are notified and informed.

  34. Family Involvement • How would you involve families in the shared school/district vision statement for Tier III? • How would you communicate the difference between Tier 2 and Tier 3 to families? • What strategies would you use to engage families of students in need of Tier III supports who may be reluctant to engage?

  35. Inventory of Formal School-Based Supports Available to Support Students with Intense and Chronic NeedsMuscott (2007)

  36. Tier III Team Activity Who: Each school “group” What: Choose one activity • Identify your array of Tier II & III supports using the chart. • Address the family engagement questions from the previous discussion. Time: 30 minutes Post or Report Out: Volunteers

  37. 1. Conflict Cycle PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Practices Muscott, Mann & Berk (2007) Building Relationships

  38. “Students in crisis seldom see connections among what they feel, how they behave and how others respond. Their responses to stress tend to be behaviors fueled by feelings, perpetuating conflict and crisis.” “Not only are most students unable to recognize feelings, they are also not able to talk about them.” “But unless a student is able to do these two things, it is difficult, if not impossible, for the student to make a lasting change from behavior driven by feelings to behavior regulated by rational processes.” Long, Wood, Fescer, 2001 p. 39

  39. CONFLICT CYCLENicholas J. Long STUDENT’S SELF CONCEPT IRRATIONAL BELIEFS 1. A Thoughts

  40. The Sequence of the Conflict CycleNicholas J. Long • Self-Concept as a Setting Event • A Stressful Event Occurs • The Event Activates Irrational Beliefs • Negative Thoughts Trigger Feelings • Negative Feelings Drive Inappropriate Behavior • Behavior Incite Staff • Staff Pick Up Student’s Negative Feelings and Frequently Mirror Student Behavior • Staff Behavior Increases Student Stress and Escalates Cycle • Student’s Self-Fulfilling Prophesy is Reinforced

  41. Student’s Self –Concept and Irrational Beliefs 2.Describe the stressful incident 1. Describe the student’s self concept & irrational beliefs Student’s Thoughts 7. How did this effect the student’s self-concept & irrational beliefs? Stressful Incident 3. Describe the student’s thoughts Student’s Feelings 6. Describe the staff/peer reaction Staff/Peer Reactions Conflict Student’s Observable Behavior 4. Describe the student’s feelings Conflict Cycle Worksheet 5. Describe the student’s behavior WAREA 2004

  42. LSCI Institute

  43. FOUR REASONS WHY COMPETENT TEACHERS BECOME COUNTER-AGGRESSIVELong, Fecser, Deming (2010) • Trapped in the Conflict Cycles of Aggressive Students (51%) • An Increase of Personal Life Stresses – Carry-In Reasons (17%) • Students Violate Cherished Beliefs (13%) • Students Expose Unresolved Developmental Issues – Tap-In Reasons (10%) • Other (9%)

  44. A Prescription for Success • You’ll always have the counter feelings, but you can’t act on them or do what is comfortable • The challenge is to turn conflict cycle into a coping cycle

  45. The Conflict Cycle occurs when both individuals react at the “low road” level. Bridget Walker (2006)

  46. Adults must remember to take the “high road” when faced with stressful situations BUT Students have to learnto take the “high road” when faced with stressful situations Bridget Walker (2006)

  47. TWO DISTINCT BRAIN FUNCTIONS RATIONAL BRAIN (NEW BRAIN) IMPULSE CONTROL SENSE OR REASON AND JUDGEMENT EMOTIONAL BRAIN (OLD BRAIN) FIGHT OR FLIGHT REASONING BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE

  48. Conflict Cycle Activity • Who: Each person • What: Identify a student who you are concerned about because their behavior escalates into power struggles with you. Identify which likely reason you might engage in counter-aggression • Timeframe: 5 minutes • Report Out: Volunteer

  49. PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Practices Muscott, Mann & Berk (2007) 2. Escalating Behavior Cycle Building Relationships