Giving developmental feedback A generic skill Dr. Adrian Dunbar, Yorkshire Deanery
Feedback • “Some trainers treat their learners in a way that leads to improved performance • Others undermine learners efforts and fail to develop their potential”
Feedback • “Giving effective and constructive criticism is one of the most common concerns of educational supervisors” • “Many consultants and GP trainers feel ill prepared in giving feedback on performance”
Think about feedback you have received • Positive? • Negative? • How did you feel? • Why so? • What effect did it have? • What were the “effective” attributes?
Objectives • Bringing out the best • Motivating • Raising self awareness • Developing insight • Enabling change • Eliminating poor performance
Motivation • Increases when success is expected • Decreases when a goal is perceived as certain – or impossible • Positive reinforcement increases the likelihood that a behaviour will be repeated
Unfortunately • Often only the negative aspects are commented on • And/or remembered • Increasing anxiety about competence • Leading to defensive cognitions and behaviour
Motivation occurs • When people are clear about the task • When they feel supported • When effort is recognised • When their contributions are valued • When they feel free to express their views • When they feel challenged to be more creative
Effective feedback is • Descriptive – not judgemental • Specific – not generalised • About behaviour – which can be changed – not personality – which can’t • Sensitive to the needs of the recipient • Selective and prioritised • Timely – as close to the event as feasible
Positive Mutual respect Genuineness Giving time Enthusiasm “Unconditional positive regard” Negative Humiliation Comment on personality No time for discussion Lack of interest Too late What are the attributes?
Communications skills • Active listening • Open questions • Facilitating reflection • Enabling insight • Challenge • Summarising
NOT • Judging • Telling • Providing solutions
Structure • The trainee comments on strengths • The trainer reinforces and adds • The trainee comments on weaknesses • The trainer reinforces and may add • With evidence
An emotional bank balance • Credits must be in place before withdrawals are made • Credits must exceed withdrawals • To avoid an emotional overdraft that is ultimately unsustainable • The balance of support and challenge
Defensive reactions • Recipient • Blaming and scapegoating • Denial • Rationalisation • Anger
Defensive reactions • Giver • Obligation • Moral high ground • Burying and fudging • Minimising • Colluding
Strategies • Keep the focus positive • Encourage ownership and responsibility • Negotiate • Time to reflect • Explore and understand negative reactions
Feedback • A life skill • Tom your hair is so long – you look really scruffy - you can’t see properly and you will get into trouble at school – I’m only telling you for your own good. • Its such a shame we can’t see your handsome face – it’s your hair of course but don’t you think it might impair your vision when driving – just a thought.