Lifecycle of a Butterfly Candice Connell, Janice Davison, Sheryl Moses, David Myers, & David Van Twistern University of Phoenix MAT532 – Curriculum Constructs and Assessment: Science and Mathematics Learning Team B James Paga (FAC) June 25, 2007
Table of Contents • Introduction • Applicable National Standards • Lesson Objectives • Materials List • Prerequisite Terms and Concepts • Key Terms/Vocabulary • Instructional Activities • Exploratory Activity • Butterfly Pattern • Activity Follow-up • Adaptations for Visually, Hearing and Physically impaired • Extension Activities • Assessment • Lesson Rubric • References
Introduction The lesson presented here is partially derived from the University of Phoenix custom e-Text, Teaching Science for All Children: An Inquiry Approach: Part II, Section 1, pages 419– 422. The lesson is designed for fourth grade students and focuses on the life cycle of butterflies, basic parts of the butterfly and lines of symmetry and transformations. The instructional strategies employed are interactive open-ended questioning, inquiry, observation, experimental and exploratory learning.
Applicable Standards National Science Standards: NS K-4.3 Life Science. As a result of activities in grades K-4, all students should develop understanding of: • The characteristics of organisms • Life cycles of organisms National Math Standards Geometry: NM.GEO.3-5.3 • Predict and describe the results of sliding, flipping, and turning two-dimensional shapes. • Identify and describe line and rotational symmetry in two and three dimensional shapes and designs. National Language Arts Standard: NL-ENG.K-12.1 Reading for Perspective • Students read a wide range of print and non-print texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment.
Lesson Objectives Instructional Goals: • Students will learn the four stages of an insect life cycle. • Students will learn through observation various characteristics of organisms. • Students will identify symmetry in form using butterfly wings. Objectives: Instructional (Teacher) Objectives: • Teach students the four stages of insect life cycles using butterflies as an example. • Teach students the concept of symmetry in two and three dimensional forms by observing and drawing the wings of butterflies. Behavioral (Learner) Objectives: • The student will learn the four stages of insect life cycles as presented in the lesson and be able to describe each stage with 90% accuracy. • Students will learn the concept of symmetry and be able to demonstrate and identify symmetry in two and three dimensional forms with 90% accuracy.
Materials List • Overhead Projector • “Butterfly Wings” Poem Overhead Projection Slide • Butterfly Growing Kits • Pictures of Butterfly eggs • Students’ Science Journals • 8-1/2 “ X 11” graph paper • Butterfly patterns • Worksheets showing stages of the butterfly life cycle for students to identify • Worksheets showing the anatomy of insects for students to identify
Prerequisite Terms & Concepts • Biological Transformation – An event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another. • Insect - Any of numerous usually small arthropod animals of the class Insect, having an adult stage characterized by three pairs of legs and a body segmented into head, thorax, and abdomen and usually having two pairs of wings. Insects include the flies, crickets, mosquitoes, beetles, butterflies, and bees. • Life Cycle – 1. The course of developmental changes through which an organism passes from its inception as a fertilized zygote to the mature state in which another zygote may be produced. 2. A progression through a series of differing stages of development. • Mathematical Transformations – A mapping of one space onto another or onto itself (sliding, flipping or turning a two dimensional shape). • (Farlex, 2007)
Key Terms/Vocabulary • Adult - The winged adult which will mate and reproduce. Adults do not eat, they only sip liquids through a straw-like proboscis. • Abdomen - The posterior segment of the body in arthropods. • Egg - The tiny orb laid by a female butterfly. Eggs are usually laid on the underside of leaves - they hatch into larvae. • Metamorphosis - A change in the form and often habits of an animal during normal development after the embryonic stage. Metamorphosis includes, in insects, the transformation a caterpillar into a butterfly. • Larva or Caterpillar – During this stage, the insect hatches from the egg. The larva spends its time eating, growing and molting (shedding its outgrown exoskeleton). • Pupa, Cocoon, or Chrysalis - During this stage the butterfly is encased in a chrysalis and undergoes metamorphosis into the adult, winged form. • Thorax - The second or middle region of the body of an arthropod, between the head and the abdomen, in insects bearing the true legs and wings. (Farlex, 2007)
Instructional Activity Open instruction by displaying Butterfly Wings by Aileen Fisher via overhead projector (see next slide for text of the poem). Read the poem as a class or select individuals from the class to read one stanza of the poem. After the class has read the poem, ask students: • What change has taken place with the butterfly? • Between the first and last stanza, what does the author of the poem compare the flight of a butterfly to? A boat at sea • Do you know the term for what is described in the poem? Life cycle • (Scholastic, n.d., p. 104) • Formative Assessment: • Butterfly Wings serves as a formative assessment, by activating prior knowledge, checking for understanding, student subject knowledge and comprehension.
Butterfly Wings How would it be on a day in June to open your eyes in a dark cocoon, And soften one end and crawl outside, and find you had wings to open wide, And find you could fly to a bush or tree or float on the air like a boat at sea . . . How would it BE? —Aileen Fisher (Scholastic, n.d., p. 105)
Instructional Activity Continued Inquiry Questions: • Do all living things experience the same life cycles? • What are the stages insects, such as butterflies, go through during their life • cycles? • What stages do people go through as they grow? • How are insect and human life stages the same or different? (University of Phoenix, Ed., 2002, p. 77, 2005, p. 419) Activity Outline: • Divide the class into three or four students per group. • Tell students they are going to observe and document the life cycle of butterflies. • Show students pictures of butterfly eggs. • Review the parts of an insect: head, thorax, abdomen and wings. • Remind students to wait for instructions before opening the Butterfly Garden growing kits. • Pass out and give each group a Butterfly Garden growing kit (each kit allows students to raise 3 to 5 butterflies).
Exploratory Activity • Tell students they will be make daily observations of the life cycle of butterflies in their science journals, paying careful attention to the butterflies’ size, color, shape, activity, and diet. Observations should consist of a combination of words, pictures, and illustrations. • Challenge students to hypothesize how their butterflies will grow and change during the life cycle. • Have students set-up a KWL chart in their science journals. Within the respective groups, have students complete the What I Know and What I Want to Know columns. • As a class, review contents of Butterfly Garden growing kits and instruct teams to set up the kits using step-by-step instructions. (Painted Lady Butterfly, n.d.)
Exploratory Activity Continued • Observe the Butterfly Gardens and the occupants, document any observed changes in appearance or behavior every day (approximately 10 minutes each day). • Each day, after the observation time, students complete the KWL charts. • Provide each student with one piece of graph paper. Fold the paper twice to create four equal quadrants. • Students may use the pattern as a manipulative to slide, flip or rotate the butterfly image to another quadrant, and trace the butterfly in the new position. • Have students trace at least three views and show at least two of the three transformations. Remind students of the math lesson on transformations where they used slide, flip, and rotate to change the position of two dimensional geometric shapes.
Exploratory Activity Continued • Students make a simple outline view of a butterfly using the Butterfly Pattern (shown below). • Identify parts of a butterfly. • Color one view as accurately as possible to show the markings of the Painted Lady Butterfly, and identify the line of symmetry. Butterfly Pattern (Butterflies, n.d.)
Activity Follow-up • As a review, the teacher may have students share the observations with the class or complete worksheets wherein the life cycle and parts of insects are identified. (Enchanted Learning, 2007)
Extension Activity • An extension may include a web quest or follow-up Internet research to teach more about the types of butterflies and habits, focusing on local species, or the migration of the Monarch Butterfly. • Monarch Butterfly migration exploratory activities may integrate statistics of numbers and types of butterfly species, life science, focusing on life cycles and migration, or geography. • Website resources for Monarch Butterfly migration include: • Monarch Butterfly, Journey North for Kids - http://www.learner.org/jnorth/tm/monarch/jr/KidsJourneyNorth.html • Monarch Watch, Migration and Tagging - http://www.monarchwatch.org/tagmig/index.htm • Nature Works, Monarch Butterfly - http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/monarch.htm
Adaptations for Visually Impaired • The teacher will place lessons, assignments, and tests on audiotape. • Students will be placed closest to the board/visual display/activity during the lesson. • Visually impaired students will be provided a personal recorder with headphones to avoid disturbing the rest of the class. • Magnified print materials and visual aids will be available. • Adaptations will be made to the materials to be compatible with special equipment that visually impaired students may require. • Children with visual impairments will be paired with sighted children. (University of Phoenix, Ed., 2005)
Adaptations for Hearing Impaired • The teacher will face the student(s) while speaking. • The teacher will speak clearly and distinctly (not shouting) so students can understand speech more easily. • Students will be seated away from distracting background noises and near the front of the room. • The student will be provided a written outline of the lesson plan to accompany the audiotape (if required). • The teacher will model or illustrate written instructions. In addition, the teacher will model required activities through demonstration to stimulate other senses. • Children with hearing impairments will be paired with non-impaired children. (University of Phoenix, Ed., 2005)
Adaptations for Physically Impaired • Any physical barriers will be removed from the classroom. • Adequate space will be proved for free movement throughout the room. • Students will be seated close to the exits for safety purposes. • Students will be paired with non-impaired students. • Students will be provided training time on required equipment/tools prior to the lesson to become acquainted with them. • Students will be assisted with writing or manipulation of required equipment/tools, if needed. (University of Phoenix, Ed., 2005)
References Butterflies!. (n.d.). Cooking for Fun: Butterflies. Retrieved and modified June 19, 2007 from http://members.tripod.com/~CookingForFun/kids/butterfly.html Butterfly Facts. (n.d.). Painted Lady Butterfly. Retrieved from http://www-pub.naz.edu:9000/~lkseeger/web-content/painted_lady.jpg Enchanted Learning. (2007). Life Cycle Diagram. Retrieved June 18, 2007 from http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/butterfly/label/lifecycle/label.shtml Farlex. (2007). The Free Dictionary. Retrieved June 19, 2007 from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/ Painted Lady Butterfly. (n.d.). Another Soybean Defoliator. Retrieved June 18, 2007 from http://ipm.uiuc.edu/bulletin/pastpest/articles/200321g.html
References Scholastic. (n.d.).Butterfly Wings. P. 104 - 105 Retrieved June 19, 2007 from http://teacher.scholastic.com/lessonrepro/lessonplans/profbooks/butterwings.pdf University of Phoenix (Ed.). (2002). Activities for Teaching Math and Science. [University of Phoenix Custom Edition e-Text], p. 77 - 78. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. University of Phoenix (Ed.). (2005). Teaching Science for All Children: An Inquiry approach. [University of Phoenix Custom Edition e-Text], pp. 87 – 94, 419. Boston, MA: Published by Allyn and Bacon.