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Bell Work Friday 3/14

Bell Work Friday 3/14. Look in your book beginning on page 651 to find the answers 1. Why were members of the Third Estates dissatisfied with life under the Old Regime? 2. How did Louis XVI’s weak leadership contribute to the growing crisis in France?

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Bell Work Friday 3/14

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  1. Bell WorkFriday 3/14 Look in your book beginning on page 651 to find the answers • 1. Why were members of the Third Estates dissatisfied with life under the Old Regime? • 2. How did Louis XVI’s weak leadership contribute to the growing crisis in France? • 3. How did the purpose of the meeting of the Third Estates-General change in 1789?

  2. The French Revolution and Napoleon Chapter 23

  3. Section 1-The French Revolution Begins

  4. The Old Order • The Old Regime-The social and political system in France during the 1700’s • The people were divided into three large classes called estates

  5. The Old Order • The First Estate- • Made up of members of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church • Scorned Enlightenment Ideas • The Second Estate- • Made up of rich Nobles who held the highest offices in government • Disagreed about Enlightenment ideas

  6. The Old Order • The Third Estate- • Included bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasant farmers • Had no power to influence government • Resented the wealthy First and Second Estates

  7. The Forces of Change • Economic Troubles in France- • Taxes made it too hard for merchants and businesses to make profit • Factors including the rise in the cost of living, wide spread crop failures in the 1780’s, and the price of bread doubling made life in France hard • Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette live extravagantly and piled up massive debt helping America fight England

  8. Dawn of the Revolution • The National Assembly- • The Third Estates delegates were heavily influenced by the Enlightenment and eager to make changes in government • Suggested that all three estates meet together and that each delegate should get a vote (giving them the advantage) • The Third Estates became the National Assembly • This action was the first deliberate act of revolution

  9. Dawn of the Revolution • Tennis Court Oath-The Third Estate broke in and promised to stay in the indoor tennis court until a new constitution was drafted

  10. Dawn of the Revolution • Storming the Bastille- • It took place on July 14th, 1789 • Mobs stormed the prison after rumors emerged that Louis was using military forces against the National Assembly • Attackers killed the prison commander and several guards • They put their heads on spikes in the streets • This became the great symbolic act of revolution • Bastille day is celebrated like our 4th of July

  11. The Great Fear Sweeps France • The Great Fear- • Peasants were afraid that the nobles had hired outlaws to terrorize them • As a result the peasants went into the homes of nobles with pitchforks and farm tools destroying the old legal papers that forced them to pay federal duties • After the price of bread rose in Oct. 1789, peasant women rioted and Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were forced to leave France

  12. Bell WorkMonday 3/17 Look in your book beginning on page 656 to find the answers • 1. What major reform did the National Assembly introduce? • 2. What did the divisions of the National Assembly say about the differences in French Society? • 3. How did the Reign of Terror come to an end?

  13. SSR + LogMonday 3/17 Please sit quietly with your desks cleared and have your pencil/pen ready for SSR

  14. SSR + LogMonday 3/17 Please take two minutes to discuss our SSR article with your table mates. When you receive your SSR One-Pager please read the directions and select and circle five sentence stems to help complete the activity

  15. Section 2-Revolution Brings Reform and Terror

  16. The Assembly Reforms France • The Rights of Man- • A set of revolutionary ideas drafted by the National Assembly • Said “men are born and remain free and equal in rights” • Life, liberty, security, and resistance to oppression • The document guaranteed equal justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion

  17. The Assembly Reforms France • A State-Controlled Church- • Members of the National assembly focused on reforming the church • Church lands were confiscated saying church officials should be elected and paid by the state • Catholic Church lost land and political independence • The selling of church lands helped pay off France’s debt

  18. Divisions Develop • Legislative Assembly- • Legislative body who had the power to create laws and approve or reject declarations of war • The king could still enforce laws

  19. Divisions Develop • Old issues caused the Legislative Assembly to split into three factions • Radicals- • Wanted massive gov. changes, opposed monarchy • Moderates- • Wanted only some changes to gov. • Conservatives- • Liked the idea of limited monarchy and only wanted a few gov. changes

  20. War and Execution • France at War- • As usual the war begins badly for France • By summer of 1792 Prussian forces were advancing on Paris • Aug 10th, 1792- • 20,000 men stormed the Tuileries and captured Louie, Marie Antoinette and the kids • Angry protesters raided the prisons and killed over 1,000 prisoners

  21. War and Execution • France at War- • National Convention- • September 21st, 1792 • New government of France • Disposed of the King • Dissolved the National Assembly • Made France a republic • Adult males were given the right to vote and hold political office

  22. War and Execution • Jacobins- • Radical members of the political organization that brought sweeping changes into the French Government • Jean-Paul Marat- • Jacobin writer who called for the deaths of those who still supported the king • Guillotine- • Quick and efficient way of beheading a criminal • Louis XVI was executed this way

  23. Terror Grips France • Reign of Terror- • July 1793, Maximilien Robespierre became the leader of the Committee of Public Safety and ruled like a dictator • During this time nearly 40,000 citizens were killed • Including George Danton and Marie Antoinette • 85% were peasants • Reign of Terror ended in July 1794 with Robespierre’s capture and execution

  24. Bell WorkTuesday 3/18 Please take out your notes/study guide and with your elbow partner review all of the information for our test covering Chapter 23 Sections 1 and 2.

  25. Section 3-Napoleon Forges an Empire

  26. Napoleon Seizes Power • Napoleon Bonaparte- • Born in 1769 • Sent to military school at 9 years old • He became a lieutenant in the French artillery at 16 • Upon his return from Egypt he led a coup d’ etat • When the council dissolved he named himself dictator • His first goal was to restore order in France

  27. Napoleon Rules France • The Plebiscite- • A vote of the people that gave Napoleon all real power • Napoleon Supported • Changes from the revolution • Laws that would strengthen the central gov. and achieve the goals of the revolution

  28. Napoleon Rules France • Napoleon also: • Set up an effective banking system • Tried to end to gov. corruption • Set up Lycees-Gov. ran public schools • Students came from all backgrounds • Relived jobs based on performance • Napoleonic Code-A uniform set of laws that ended many injustices • Promoted order over individual rights

  29. Napoleon Creates an Empire • 1804-Napoleon crowned himself emperor • This symbolized his power over the church • Napoleon's Goals- • Wanted to control all of Europe • Re-establish French dominance in the Americas • He thought the key was the sugar producing colony of Saint Domingue

  30. Napoleon Creates an Empire • Loss of American Territories- • The people of Saint Domingue led by Toussaint L’Ouverture demanded the same rights as French citizens • Napoleon failed to overtake them • 1803-Napoleon offers to sell the Louisiana Territory for $15 million

  31. Napoleon Creates an Empire • Napoleon was extremely successful in battle during the early part of his reign • Britain, Russia, Austria, and Sweden joined forces against France but could not beat them • His victories allowed him to build the largest empire since the Romans • His only real challenge was Britain's navy

  32. Napoleon Creates an Empire • The Battle of Trafalgar- • The only major battle Napoleon lost • This naval defeat had two lasting effects: • It assured Britain naval supremacy for the next 100 years • Napoleon abandoned his plans of invading Britain

  33. Napoleon Creates an Empire • By 1812 the only countries in Europe not controlled by Napoleon were: • Britain, Portugal, Sweden and the Ottoman Empire • His empire existed at it’s greatest extent from 1807 to 1812 • Napoleon’s grand ambitions became his undoing

  34. Bell WorkWednesday 3/19 Look in your book beginning on page 668 to find the answers • 1. How did Great Britain combat Napoleon’s naval blockade? • 2. Why did Napoleon have trouble defeating enemy forces in the Peninsular War? • 3. How many member of France’s Grand Army returned from their attack on Moscow?

  35. Section 4-Napoleon’s Empire Collapses

  36. Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes • Napoleon’s desire for power became his greatest downfall • Napoleon made three major mistakes in his quest to crush Britain and expand France • The Continental System • The Peninsular War • The Invasion of Russia

  37. Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes • The Continental System- • Napoleon set up a blockade to prevent trade between Britain and Europe • Two Goals: • Make continental Europe self-sufficient • Destroy Britain’s commercial and industrial economy • France’s blockade was weak • British ships made it to Europe • French and Neutral ships were stopped by Britain’s blockade • U.S. frustrated and declared war on Britain (War of 1812)

  38. Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes • The Peninsular War- • In his attempt to get Portugal to accept the Continental system Napoleon sent troops through Spain • Removed the Spanish king • The people worried he would weaken the Catholic church • Peasant fighters called guerrillas killed 300,000 of Napoleon’s men • A growing sense of nationalism in European nations became a powerful weapon against Napoleon

  39. Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes • The Invasion of Russia- • Napoleon decided to invade Russia in 1812 • Russian czar refused to stop selling to Britain • Scorched-earth policy- • Russia burned all the grain fields and killed all the live stock in France’s path so there would be nothing to eat • Russia and France met at the Battle of Borodino • The entire Russian campaign cost Napoleon’s Grand Army 410,000 soldiers

  40. Napoleon's Downfall • Napoleon Suffers Defeat- • Britain, Russia, Prussia and Sweden joined forces against Napoleon • In April 1814 Napoleon accepted the terms of surrender and gave up his throne • Napoleon was given a small pension and exiled to the island of Elba

  41. Napoleon's Downfall • The Hundred Days- • Napoleon's last bid for power • Napoleon escaped from Elba on March 1st, 1815 • Crowds joyfully greeted him and helped him re-capture the French throne • Waterloo- • June 18th, 1815–British and Persian forces defended their ground and defeated Napoleon's forces • Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena where he died 6 years later

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