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Molecular Structures

Molecular Structures

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Molecular Structures

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  1. Molecular Structures

  2. CH4

  3. Gumdrop Molecule Activity • Draw the Lewis dot structure for the molecule • Use gumdrops, marshmallows, and toothpicks to build a 3D representation of the molecule • Gumdrop=atom • Toothpick=bond • Small marshmallow=shared electron pair • Large marshmallow=lone electron pair • Draw a sketch on sheet of your molecule (remember a key!)

  4. Lets look at Methane (CH4)… • What do you notice about methane? • How many shared electron pairs are surrounding the central carbon? • Enter number into Quizdom Remote

  5. Lets look at Methane (CH4)… • What do you notice about methane? • Can it bond with anything else? • Yes • No

  6. Lets look at Methane (CH4)… • 3D Model: Jmol perspective • Bond Angle: 109.5° • Molecular Shape Name: • Tetrahedral • 4 pairs. All Shared.

  7. NH3

  8. Gumdrop Molecule Activity • Draw the Lewis dot structure for the molecule • Use gumdrops, marshmallows, and toothpicks to build a 3D representation of the molecule • Gumdrop=atom • Toothpick=bond • Small marshmallow=shared electron pair • Large marshmallow=lone electron pair • Draw a sketch on sheet of your molecule (remember a key!)

  9. Now, how about Ammonia (NH3)? • How many shared pairs of electrons are there?

  10. Now, how about Ammonia (NH3)? • How many shared pairs of electrons are there? • Predict what you think will happen to the bond angles between the hydrogens in ammonia compared to the hydrogens in methane: • A) The angle will increase • B) The angle will decrease • C) The angle will remain the same

  11. Lets look at Ammonia (NH3)… • 3D Model: Jmol perspective • With lone pairs • Bond Angle: 107.6° • Molecular Shape Name: • Trigonalpyramidal • 4 pairs: 3 shared. 1 lone pair

  12. What would happen if there was no Lone pair on Ammonia?

  13. BH3

  14. For bH3… • How many unshared pairs of electrons exist around the central atom?

  15. What does BH3 look like? • 3D Model: Jmol perspective • Bond Angle: 120° • Molecular Shape Name: • Trigonalplanar • 3 pairs: 3 shared. 0 lone pair

  16. H2O

  17. Now Let’s take another Electron pair off…What will H2O look like? • Which is NOT true about the relationship between water and ammonia? • A) The bond angle is greater for water than it is for ammonia • B) The bond angle is smaller for water than it is for ammonia • C) There are more lone pairs in water • D) There are fewer shared pairs in water

  18. H2O…it’s everywhere • 3D Model: Jmol perspective • With Lone Pairs • Bond Angle: 104.5° • Molecular Shape Name: • Bent • 4 pairs: 2 shared. 2 lone pair

  19. CO2

  20. What is different for CO2? • How many lone pairs are there?

  21. What is different for CO2? • How many lone pairs are there? • How many covalent bonds are formed around the carbon?

  22. Let’s look at CO2… • 3D Model: Jmol perspective • Bond Angle: 180° • Molecular Shape Name: • Linear • 4 pairs: 4 shared. 0lone pair

  23. Easy Enough…Lets see if we can use our chart to predict for other Molecules

  24. What do you think about BeCl2? • How many shared pairs are there?

  25. What do you think about BeCl2? • How many shared pairs are there? • How many lone pairs are there around the central atom?

  26. Now Let’s look at H2S • How many lone pairs are there?

  27. Now Let’s look at H2S • How many lone pairs are there? • What would the bond angle be?

  28. For PH3… • How many lone pairs are there?

  29. For PH3… • How many lone pairs are there? • The bond angle for PH3is ______ compared to CH4. • A) Larger • B) Smaller • C) The same

  30. How about CCl4? • How many shared pairs around central atom?

  31. How about CCl4? • How many shared pairs around central atom? • How many lone pairs?

  32. How about CCl4? • How many shared pairs around central atom? • How many lone pairs? • What would you predict the bond angle would be?

  33. PCl5

  34. Expanded Octet: PCl5 • TrigonalBipyramidal • Jmol representation • Bond Angles: 90° and 120° • 5 Total Pairs: 5 Shared pairs 0 Lone Pairs

  35. Expaned Octet… Cont. • Octahedral : SF6 • Jmol Representation • Bond Angles: 90° • 6 Total Pairs: 6 shared, 0 Lone Pairs

  36. Octahedral : SF6 What do you think would happen if you removed an Fluorine from the central Sulfur atom? What if you removed another? How do you think this would affect the molecular model?

  37. Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory The molecular structure is based on electrons (Shared or unshared) arranging themselves so that they have the greatest distance between one another around the central atom. The goal is to minimize the repulsion between the negatively-charged electrons.