Chapter 5 Review PowerPoint
Characteristics of the Civil Rights Movement
Characteristics of the Civil Rights Movement • Non-violent protest • Utilization of legislation to eliminate barriers • strong leadership…MLK etc • Organized, grass root workers
Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Ended discrimination by employers and by places of public service • An attempt to eliminate de facto discrimination
Brown v. Board of Education • “Separate but Equal” cast down • ended racial segregation in schools • Equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment • an attempt to eliminate de facto discrimination
De jure discrimination • at attempt to eliminate discrimination that is based within our LAWS, • that discrimination which is a proven fact…because it is written down.
De facto discrimination • Discrimination based on race, religion, sex, ethnicity, etc. that is within our culture and centered within economic & social biases
The Strict Scrutiny Test • Used to judge any law that attempts to use racial or ethnic classifications
University of Ca. Regents v. Bakke (1978) • Alan Bakke, white, denied entrance to medical school on the basis is of race-based quota • several minorities admitted with lower scores • Decision: Quotas were unconstitutional, but quotas could be used to create a more diverse student population
What was “Busing”? • Shipping students from the school in one area to another area, with the attempt to desegregate schools, faster than society was doing it. • A forced attempt at de facto desegregation • S.C. decisions have limited the crossing of boundaries, allowed the insulation of predominantly white districts • not supported by most white Americans, congress, the president, most governors.
Redlining • result of the Civil Rights Act (1968) • banned banks giving mortgages based on where the home is • Now, where one lives, does not disqualify someone from getting a mortgage
Affirmative Action • an attempt to eliminate de facto discrimination • blamed for “reverse discrimination” • Created a quota system for education based on one’s race or ethnicity
Reasonable Basis test • Court test to laws that treat individuals unequally • Such laws may be held constitutional, if its purpose is held to “reasonably” related to a legitimate government interest • Gives the government the benefit of the doubt regarding some laws
The Fourteenth Amendment • Used to stop discrimination • applies to the government • Used by the Supreme Court to apply the issue of civil rights to the states, and beyond the federal government • Does not apply to Wal-mart • or any other business practice
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg Country Board of Education (1971)
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg Country Board of Education (1971) • Busing of children an appropriate way to integrate schools that were segregated because of past discrimination • applied to the North • triggered violent & massive protests
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) • 1923 - Congress introduces the amendment • Intent was to specifically give equal rights to women, (banned based on sex) • Fails, revised several times, still fails • Resurrected in the early 1970 • fails by three states
The Twenty-fourth Amendment • Addressed to eliminate the use of the Poll Tax in voting discrimination • Ratified January 1964 • Similar date to Civil Rights Act
Equal Pay Act of 1963 • prohibits sex discrimination in salary and wages • Education Amendment added in 1972, prohibits sex discrimination in education
Adarand v. Pena (1995) • Adarand Constructors; federal contract awarded to a Hispanic owned company, even though Adarand submitted a lower bid • Decision; Adarand’s favor, reversing Fullilove • outlawed rules that give firm’s an advantage, simply because the owner’s race is that of a people historically discriminated against • remedy must be “narrowly tailored” to the situation • end of an era.
Family & Medical Leave Act (1993) • provides up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for employees to care for a new born baby or severely ill family member • Helps establish the idea of comparable worth; • wage scales are set that women and men get equal pay for jobs that involve a similar level of difficulty and require a similar level of training or pay.
Grutler v. Bollinger • U of M’s law school admissions • decision: 5-4 upheld law school’s program • it was applied in a limited & sensible manner and furthered Michigan’s “compelling interest in obtaining the educational benefits that flow from a diverse student body”. • Affirmative action upheld, but narrow win means it’s not over yet.
The End I know this is a different type of review, but it covers most if not all of the information necessary for Chapter 5 test