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Test Crosses and Incomplete Dominance

Test Crosses and Incomplete Dominance

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Test Crosses and Incomplete Dominance

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  1. Test Crosses and Incomplete Dominance Agenda: Take up Question #7 and #8 from monohybrid cross problems Ratios for dibybrid crosses Mendel’s 2nd Law Introduce Test Crosses and Incomplete Dominance

  2. Mendel’s 2nd Law • The Law of Independent Assortment: when two or more pairs of characteristics are considered at one time, each pair shows dominance and segregation, independently of each other.

  3. In a dihybrid cross involving heterozygous individuals for both traits. The ratio will always be 9:3:3:1, 9 dominant/dominant, 3 dominant/recessive, 3 recessive/dominant and 1 recessive/recessive

  4. Test Crosses • Imagine, Mr. Law wanted to know if he had purebred black lab. He was too cheap to pay for a genetic test and did not neuter his dog. Black coat colour is dominant over gold coat colour • What can he do!? • A test cross: is a cross-fertilization between a parent of unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive parent.

  5. Incomplete Dominance • What do you think would happen, if these two snapdragon flowers were crossed? • Take a minute to make a prediction of the expected phenotype of the F1 generation of the white and red snap dragon.

  6. Incomplete Dominance • In the F1 generation all the flowers are pink!? • How does that happen?

  7. Incomplete dominance • When neither gene is completely dominant over the other gene, an intermediate phenotype is expressed. In this case it is a pink flower colour

  8. Incomplete Dominance • In an RR homozygous dominant red plant, enough red pigment protein is produced to give the flower a red appearance. • But in the heterozygous pink (Rr) snapdragon flower, there is only sufficient red pigment protein produced to make the flower appear pink • The R allele does not completely dominate expression over the r allele. • So we can say, the R allele is only partially expressed in a heterozygous Rr snapdragon plant

  9. What if I cross-fertilized my F1 generation plants? What do you think the resultant offspring would look like? • Discuss with a partner what you think the offspring would look like. Use rainbow or foil method to find the genotypes!

  10. What are your predictions? • Discuss, with a partner what is the phenotype ratio? What is the genotype ratio? • What pattern do you notice between the genotype and phenotype?

  11. In the F2 generation we observe a 1:2:1 white:pink:red phenotype, which happens to be the exact same as the genotype ratio. • This only happens when there is incomplete dominance between alleles.

  12. This demonstrates the law of segregation still holds because the alleles are able to separate into their own gamete. • Therefore, there is no blending of genetic material.

  13. Some examples of human traits exhibiting incomplete dominance: hair, skin and eye colours!

  14. Practice Problem • A homozygous white flowered plant is crossed with a homozygous plant that produces purple flowers. Describe the phenotype of the offspring, if the alleles show incomplete dominance. • Let WW represent the white flowered plant • Let W’W’ represent the purple flowered plant • W’ = allele for purple plants • W= allele for white plants We need to write them as W and W’ because they do not display dominance over one another.

  15. Codominance • Is the condition in which both alleles for a trait are equally expressed in a heterozygote offspring, meaning both alleles are dominant. • An example is the roan (red and white) cow:

  16. So How Does Incomplete Dominance Differ from Co-Dominance? • In co-dominance, both alleles are expressed completely. Each individual hair in the coat of the cow is either red or white. Both parental phenotypes can be distinguished in the heterozygote

  17. While in incomplete dominance, there is a blending of traits. Resulting in an intermediate phenotype, relative to the parents. • Which flower exhibits co-dominance? • Incomplete Dominance and Co-Dominance

  18. Practice Problem • Sickle Cell Anemia displays codominant inheritance. • Sickle-cells do not transport oxygen as effectively and cannot pass through small blood vessels, leading to clots and tissue damage

  19. Suppose an individual homozygous for the gene coding for sickle cell anemia had children with an individual who was homozygous for the normal hemoglobin gene. What would the F1 generation be? • Hb= gene coding for hemoglobin • S= sicked-cell allele • N= normal-cell allele • Let HbSHbS represent the homozygous sickled cell individual • Let HbNHbN represent the homozygous normal-celled individual

  20. Individuals who are heterozygous for the sickle cell gene have cells that are both sickled and normal • However, they do not experience any symptoms of anemia • They are also more resistant to malaria because it is thought, that the parasite cannot infect sickled cells

  21. The sickle cell trait is an example of the principle of heterozygous advantage. • Being heterozygous for the sickle cell trait has benefits over being homozygous normal or homozygous sickle-cell.