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Digital Cinema

Digital Cinema

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Digital Cinema

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  1. Digital Cinema From Motion JPEG to Film projection A presentation by: Maxime Cassan Florent Rioult Neil Sinclair December 2008

  2. Introduction • Very recent technology • Bits and bytes • Use of digital technology for: Production Distribution Projection

  3. Brief History of Digital Cinema • 1999: First public demonstrations of modern day digital cinema • 2002: Introducing security (Star Wars II) • 2002: Creation of DCI • 2005: Release of DCI specifications v1.0 • 2007: 6000 digital cinemas over the world (<2% of the total number of movie theaters)

  4. Distribution of digital films • Digital films: bigcomputer files • In the past: • Numeric tapes • DVDs • Nowadays: • HDDsonly • Immaterial distribution

  5. Costs of Digital Cinema • Single film print: $1200 • 300GB HDD: $70 • Reduced costs while shooting and editing • Downsides: • Up to $150000 per screen • Digital playback system can cost 4 times as much as a film projector

  6. Compression • Compression Requirements: • Scalability • Camera Compression • Archive Compression • Compression Efficiency • Cost

  7. What is Motion JPEG2000 • Motion JPEG2000 is used in applications that require scalability, high quality, lossless coding and error resilience. • Created as an advancement to JPEG and JPEG2000. • Does not involve inter-frame encoding, only intra-frame encoding as each frame is encoded separately.

  8. Scalability • Resolution Example of resolution progressive bit streaming – [1] • Quality Example of layer progressive bit stream ordering – [2] The left is 0.125 bpp and the right is 0.5 bpp.

  9. Intra-frame Encoding • Each frame is independent • Each image in the sequence is an exact representation of the data at every point in time due to the lossless coding • Higher compression efficiency

  10. Review of compression • Flexible file format • Scalability • High compression • High quality • Lossless and near lossless compression • Ideal for Digital Cinema

  11. Liquid Cristal Display • 3 LCD Technology. • White Light is separated in 3 beams: Red, Green, Blue. • Each beam is masked by a LCD panel then the beams are recombined. • Not used in Digital Cinema. Image from http://www.projectorpoint.co.uk/

  12. Digital Micromirror Device • The DLP is based on the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) technology • Each pixel is a tiny mirror which can be tilt: • In direction of the lens: the pixel is ON and white. • Away from the lens: the pixel is OFF and black • DMD is used to modulate light intensity to obtain different shades of gray (1024). • This is possible by tilting ON and OFF the mirror at a very high speed. Image from http://www.dlp.com

  13. Digital Light Processing (One chip) • The One chip DLP projector uses a chromatic wheel to filter the light to have successive Red, Green and Blue beams. • The DMD is used to modulate light intensity of each pixel for each color beam. • The HVS then merge the successive monochromatic images to form one full spectrum color image. • The issue with the one chip system is the rainbow effect Image from http://www.dlp.com

  14. One Chip DLP Rainbow Effect Photo taken of a hand moving quickly past a DLP projection, demonstrating the rainbow effect of a DLP projector's colour wheel. Author: Damien Donnelly From www.wikipedia.org License: Creative Commons

  15. Digital Light Processing (Three chips) • The Three chip DLP projector uses a prism to create simultaneous Red, Green and Blue beams. • Each one of those beam is reflected on a dedicated DMD • On the way back from the DMD the three beam go through the prism one again to be merge into one single beam • The is no rainbow effect with this system Image from http://www.dlp.com

  16. Liquid Crystal on Silicon • It is very similar to DLP as it is a reflective technology. • Instead of using micromirror it uses liquid crystal. Images from http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/

  17. Technology Comparison Own image from data on www.jvc.com

  18. Conclusion • Is digital really better than film? • Clarity • Detail • Immune to: • Scratches • Fading • Jitter • Total fidelity at every screening

  19. Questions?