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## Social Relations Model: Multiple Variables

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**Social Relations Model:Multiple Variables**David A. Kenny**Types of Variables in SRM Studies**• Dyadic variable • Personality variable • Self variable • Group variable**Multiple Dyadic Variables**Bivariate Correlations 4 at the individual level 2 at the dyadic level**Dyadic Variables**Individual-level Correlations Actor-Actor Actor-Partner Partner-Actor Partner-Partner**Actor-Actor Correlation**If initially a person sees others as Extroverted, does that person still see others as extroverted after interacting with them? Not really: r = .21**Actor-Partner Correlation**If initially a person sees others as Extroverted, is that person seen as extroverted after interacting with him or her? Maybe: r = .46**Partner-Actor Correlation**If a person is initially seen by others as Extroverted, does that person see others as extroverted after interacting with them? Not really: r = -.02**Partner-Partner Correlation**If initially a person is seen by others as Extroverted, is that seen as Extroverted after interacting with him or her? Yes: r = .89**Relationship Intrapersonal**If one person, A, initially thinks another person, B, is particularly extroverted, does A still think that B is particularly extroverted after interacting with him or her? Nor really: r = .23).**Relationship Interpersonal**If one person, A, initially thinks another person, B, is particularly extroverted, does B think that A is particularly extroverted after interacting with him or her? Not really: r = -.15**Creating a Construct**Why? to separate error from relationship variance**Multiple Measures**Same measure at different times. Different measures at the same time.**How?**Sum or average the scores. Create a construct or a latent variable.**Stable versus Unstable Variance**stable variance: variance that correlates across different measures of the construct unstable variance: variance that is unique to the specific measure of the construct**Measurement Model**Equal loadings of the different measures: All measures need to have the same units. Equal unstable variance in each measure**Construct Variances**Stable Actor Unstable Actor Stable Partner Unstable Partner Stable Relationship Unstable Relationship**Error Variance**Very often Unstable Actor and Partner variances are very small. There is only Unstable Relationship variance. Can report error variance as the sum of Unstable Actor, Partner, and Relationship variances.**Example**Liking at Two Times (Curry) Stable Unstable Actor .160 .029 Partner .259 .016 Relationship .422 .114 Error .159**Correlated Error**Some times, pairs of indicators share method variance. Same time Same instrument Need to remove correlated error effect in computing correlations between two constructs.**Extroversion (personality variable) with Smiling (dyadic**variable) Actor Personality Variable Correlation: If Dave is extroverted, does Dave smile more? Partner Personality Variable Correlation: If Dave is extroverted, do others smile more at Dave?**A Personality Variable at the Relationship Level**Compute the product of actor’s personality X partner’s personality (both centered) or alternatively the absolute difference. Correlate with relationship effect.**Self Variable as a Special Personality Variable**Self Variable: A “dyadic” measurement in which actor and partner are the same person. Can correlated with actor and partner effects.**Group Variable**Same score for all group members. Examples gender experimental condition Tests level variances**Suggested Readings**Dyadic Data Analysis, Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, Chapter 8 Appendix B in Kenny’s Interpersonal Perception (1994)