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Compressed Gases

Compressed Gases

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Compressed Gases

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  1. Compressed Gases

  2. Stories of Compressed Gases • Employee killed when cylinder turned into a rocket because its valve was knocked off • Employee suffocated after entering a space filled with nitrogen • Facility damaged when acetylene cylinder heated up and exploded • Eyebrows singed when lighting a gas BBQ

  3. Training Goals • Compressed Gases and Cylinders in General • Specific Compressed Gases • Quiz

  4. Basics of Compressed Gases • Chemicals include oxygen, argon, nitrogen, helium, acetylene, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, ammonia, chlorine, etc. • Compressed gases used in bulk systems or portable cylinders • Industry uses include welding, cutting, operating tools, transferring liquids, blowing agents, laboratories, etc.

  5. Hazards of Compressed Gases Explosion Flammability Corrosive Toxicity Reactivity Air displacing Check MSDS for specific hazards

  6. Markings or Labels • Name of the compressed gas • Hazards of the compressed gas • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) labels • Department of Transportation (DOT) labels • Do not remove any labels

  7. Bulk Systems • Built and maintained by qualified personnel • Filled by trained and qualified personnel • Tank and piping properly labeled • Tank system protected from damage

  8. Cylinder Transportation • Receiving/shipping cylinders requires DOT Hazardous Materials training • Use lift trucks or hoists only with proper lifting equipment • Never use a sling or electromagnet to hoist a cylinder • Never lift a cylinder by the valve cap

  9. Manual Cylinder Handling Close the valve and put on the cap Do not “walk” cylinder by holding onto valve stem or cap Never roll a cylinder on its side Use a hand truck with a secure system

  10. Cylinder Storage Area • Dry, well ventilated, protected from weather • Away from combustibles, heat sources, electrical systems • No sparks, smoking, open flames • Oxygen separated from fuels • Upright, secured, valve cap on • Not in elevators, staircases, hallways, etc. • Sign requirements

  11. Cylinder Use • Upright and secure • Away from flames, sparks, electricity • Keep oil, grease, flammables off cylinders • Open valve by hand, if tools required don’t use the cylinder • Open valve slowly with hand to the side • Don’t tamper with safety devices

  12. Regulators and Gauges • Regulator and gauge rated for the pressure in the gas system • Regulator must be compatible with the gas • Do not exchange gauge from one gas to another • Thread sealant recommended by manufacturer for application • Wear eye protection when operating regulator

  13. Leaking Cylinders Never try to repair Tag it, move it outdoors, and keep it away from heat or flame Call manufacturer or dealer

  14. General Cylinder Safety • Only accept and use DOT approved cylinders • Do not drop cylinders • Protect cylinders from cuts and abrasions • Don’t use cylinders for unintended function such as a roller or support • Don’t tamper with safety valves • Caps on whenever not in use

  15. Goals of Compressed Gases • Compressed Gases and Cylinders in General • Specific Compressed Gases • Quiz

  16. LPG (Propane) • Liquid petroleum gases (LPG) include propane, propylene, butane, butylene • Liquid under pressure, released as a gas • LPG containers must meet specific design criteria • Cylinders have pressure relief valves • Regulated by local fire department

  17. LPG Hazards • Flammable and reactive • Gases are colorless and odorless • Heavier than air, may build up and explode unexpectedly • Adequate ventilation required

  18. LPG Containers • Marked as an approved container • Capacity and design pressure • Shut-off valve, pressure relief valve, level gauge • Never use container not approved for LPG, corroded or damaged, missing accessory

  19. LPG Handling No smoking, use sparkless tools Fill or dispense outside or in well-ventilated area—wear PPE such as glove and goggles Secure to forklift or other vehicle Report damaged cylinders Leak detection

  20. Compressed Air • Flying fragments penetrate eyes or skin • Compressed air can penetrate skin, damage eyes or ears • Use lowest pressure for the job • Wear eye and skin protection • Store air hose properly and inspect regularly

  21. Oxygen Does not burn or explode by itself Supports combustion process Explosive with acetylene, hydrogen Never handle with oily hands or gloves

  22. Acetylene • Flammable • Cylinder packed with porous material and solvent that holds the acetylene • Once the valve is opened, the acetylene flows out in gaseous form • Pressure relief valve using fusible metal that melts at about 212 °F

  23. Miscellaneous Gases • Gases such as argon and nitrogen are used to displace air • Helium could cause rapid suffocation • Gases like ammonia and chlorine will cause large evacuations even for small leaks

  24. Goals of Compressed Gases • Compressed Gases and Cylinders in General • Specific Compressed Gases • Quiz

  25. Summary • Cylinders must always be stored and secured properly • Use caution when transporting cylinders • Understand the hazards of a compressed gas before using it • Even compressed air can be dangerous

  26. Quiz 1. The best way to lift a cylinder is by attaching a sling to its cap. True or False 2. What type of gas cylinder must be stored away from fuels? ______________________________ 3. What’s wrong with storing a cylinder in a staircase or hallway? ______________________________ 4. Oxygen is dangerous because it will explode or burn by itself. True or False 5. Describe the safest way to manually transport a cylinder: _________________________________

  27. Quiz (cont.) 6. Propane is naturally colorless and odorless. True or False 7. Compressed air can be dangerous because _____________________________________________. 8. Name two things that cylinder labels should contain: ____________________ and _____________________. 9. Breathing helium could cause suffocation. True or False 10. The cylinder cap needs to be on only when it is being transported. True or False

  28. Quiz Answers 1. False. Never lift a cylinder by its cap and never use a sling to lift a cylinder. 2. Oxygen cylinders must be stored 20 feet away from fuels or separated by 1/2 hour fire wall. 3. The cylinder is subject to more traffic, so the risk of being knocked over is greater. 4. False. Oxygen only supports combustion. Even a minute amount of oil can cause a reaction. 5. Use a handcart with a cylinder securing device such as a chain.

  29. Quiz Answers (cont.) 6. True. The odor is added to propane so that leaks can be more easily detected. 7. Compressed air can penetrate the skin, damage eyes or ears, or create flying objects. 8. Cylinders should be labeled with the name of the gas and the hazards of the gas. 9. True. Helium may block the flow of oxygen and cause suffocation. 10. False. Keep the cap on whenever the cylinder is not being used.