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Phylum Porifera: Sponges

Phylum Porifera: Sponges

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Phylum Porifera: Sponges

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  1. Phylum Porifera: Sponges Chapter 6

  2. Crustacea Vertebrata Arachnida Tunicata Insecta Chordata Arthropoda Hemi- chordata Mollusca Annelida Echinodermata Protostomes Deuterostomes Pseudocoelomates † Triploblasts * Diploblasts Coelomates Acoelomates Bilateria† Radiata* Cnidaria Ctenophora Eumetazoa Mesozoa Parazoa Metazoa Protozoa Monera (Bacteria)

  3. The Sponges • Phylum Porifera (Latin porous, “pore”; ferre : “to bear”). • About 5,500 living species most marine although there are about 200 freshwater species; 30 freshwater species in the US.

  4. Characteristics of Sponges • Metazoa: without true tissue. Cellular grade of complexity (Parazoa). • Adults asymmetrical or superficially radialy symmetrical. • Unique flagellated cells the choanocytes that drive water through canals and chambers: the aquiferous system. • Adults sessile suspension feeders; larval stages are motile. • Reproduction sexual or asexual.

  5. The Poriferan Bauplan • Two unique organizational attributes: • The aquiferous system • Highly totipotent nature of sponge cells

  6. Overview of general structures • Sponges move water through their bodies using choanocytes • All cells are loosely arranged into a gelatinous matrix, the mesohyle • Water enters small holes called ostia • Water exits large holes called oscula • A skeleton helps maintain the structure of the sponge.

  7. Body Structure and the Aquiferous System The mesohyl includes a non cellular coloidal mesoglea in which are embedded collagen fibers, spicules and various cells. Most of these cells are able to change from one type to another as required. Water flows through the ostia all the chanels and eventually out through the osculum. Dermal pores or ostia 3)

  8. Types of Canal Systems • Most sponges can be separated based on their type of canal system. 1. Asconoid 2. Syconoid 3. Leuconoid

  9. Asconoid sponges • Found in radially symmetrical calcarous sponges: rarely exceed 10cm in height.

  10. Asconoid sponges • Simple organization • Water moves through the ostia into the spongocoel • Choanoderm simple and continuous one cell thick.

  11. Syconoid sponges • Syconoid condition: simple folding of the pinacoderm and choanoderm. • As complexity increases the mesohyl may thicken and appear to have two layers. • Water is brought in through the incurrent canals and then to radial canals (lined with choanocytes).

  12. Syconoid sponges

  13. Leuconoid sponges • Additional folding of the choanoder and further thickening of the mesohyl. • Water is brought in through incurrent canals, and discharged through excurrent canals. • Most common type.

  14. Leuconoid sponges

  15. The more complex a sponge condition the more particles it can filter from the water column.

  16. Types of Cells • Pinacocytes • Porocytes • Choanocytes • Archeocytes (Amoebocytes or Mesenchyme cells)

  17. I. Pinacocytes • Cells of the external epithelium • Main functions: • Structure • Contraction

  18. II. Porocytes • Cells which form pores • Function: to allow water flow

  19. III. Choanocytes • Line the flagellated canals and chambers. • Main function: to create water flow.

  20. Diameter of channels influences water flow velocity. Particles that are captured are in the 2-5 µm range.

  21. IV. Archaeocytes (Mesenchyme) • Amoeboid cells which can be non-sessile • Found in cellular matrix • Main function: • Digestion • Secrete structural components • Spongin • Spicules

  22. Sponge feeding

  23. Sclerocyte (Archiocyte) in the process of secreting a spicule

  24. Keeping the mesohyle together • Spongin • Spines (spicules) • Siliceous • Calcareous

  25. Spongin • Fibers of collagen

  26. Spicules • Spines, when placed together form a very rigid skeleton

  27. Megascleres and Microscleres m M

  28. Main Groups of Sponges • P: Porifera • C: Calcarea • C: Hexactinellida • C: Demospongiae

  29. Calcarea • Calcareous sponges • Spicules composed of calcium carbonate • Small < 10 cm tall

  30. Calcareous sponges

  31. Hexactinellida • Glass sponges • Some spicules fused to form skeleton • Spicules made of glass (Siliceous spicules)six rayed • Deep water sponges

  32. Siliceous spicules in Hexactinellida (Triaxon) six rayed spicules.

  33. Demospongiae • Common sponges • Skeleton is variable • Spicules • Spongin • both • Can be large

  34. Siliceous Spiculse in Desmospongia Never six-rayed Microscleres Megascleres

  35. The Big Picture • Sponges are metazoans, but don’t have true tissues • They are an ancient group (dead end) • Three main groups (taxonomic), which fall into three main structural groups • Four types of specialized cells *Choanocyte*