Ch 52 Behavioral Ecology “Oh Behave!!!”
Behavior—What an animal does and how it does it. • Proximate causation—Immediate mechanisms underlying an organisms behavioral, physiological, or morphological response. • Ultimate causation—Evolutionary explanation for a behavioral, physiological or morphological response.
Figure 51.1 Genetic and environmental components of behavior: a case study
Nature vs. Nurture • Both are active in shaping an organisms behavior. Genes and environment influence phenotypes and behavior. • Multiple factors affect behavior. • Innate behavior = developmentally fixed behavior • Developed because behavior maximized fitness to the point where genes for variant behavior were lost.
Learning—Modification of specific behavior resulting from specific experiences • Associative learning—The ability to associate one stimulus with a reward or punishment • Classical conditioning—Learning to associate an arbitrary stimulus with a reward or punishment. • Operant conditioning—Trial and error learning Associate behavior with a reward or punishment.
Cognitive Mechanisms • Kinesis—Change in activity level • Taxis automatic oriented movement toward or away from a stimulus. • Landmark—Similar to taxis but organism must learn landmark. • Cognitive map—internal representation of special relationships among an organism’s surroundings. (more complex then landmark)
Migration—Regular movement over long distances. • Piloting—moving from one landmark to another until destination is reached. • Orientation—animal detects compass directions and travels in a straight line until reaching destination. • Navigation—Animal uses compass directions after determining present location relative to other locations.
Figure 51.16 Orientation versus navigation in juvenile and adult starlings