Warm Up: ISN pg. L 69 Imagine yourself as President, in 1930. Choose two of the country’s economic problems and explain how you would fix these to help the country.
Franklin D. Roosevelt, a liberal Democrat believed in government programs to end the Depression.
President Herbert Hoover, a conservative Republican believed that allowing businesses to volunteer to control prices would end the depression.
The Presidential Election 1932 • Franklin D. Roosevelt beat Herbert Hoover, by a “landslide” 23 million to 16 million votes • FDR promised a “New Deal” and “Happy Days” 0:02:27
Inauguration Address 1933 …the only thing we have to fear…is fear itself
The Rise of FDR, His Early Years • FDR grew up wealthy, but held Christian values of compassion for the poor • He was a lawyer, state senator, assistant secretary of the U.S. Navy, governor of NY • He gave people hope in the Depression with radio “Fireside Chats”. 3:53:00
Rare photo of FDR in a wheel chair In 1921, age 39 he was struck with polio left him unable to move his legs. He founded The March of Dimes in 1938, to treat polio and research a cure. Led to the the Salk vaccine in 1955.
The Beginning of the New Deal: The First Hundred Days • The First New Deal: 1933-1934 Relief, Recovery and Reform. • Emergency Banking Act 1933 (Glass-Steagall Act) • Bank Holiday-shut down banks (4 days). Reopened healthy banks & provides loans • Separation of regular banks and investment banks and requiring use of government securities to back Federal Reserve notes. Off Gold Standard • FDIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation guaranteed bank deposits up to $2,500 • Federal Securities Act: • SEC Securites Exchange Commission-Full and Fair Disclosure of stock sales, severe penalties for fraud • Raised Taxes on the Wealthy and Corporations
The First New Deal: 1933-1934 Relief, Recovery and Reform • FERA Federal Emergency Relief Administration-Direct relief grants for people through state agencies. Some states felt it was their job to give relief. • CCCCivilian Conservation Corps- 250,000 young men worked in national parks, building trails, planting trees. • Legalized beer and wine June 17, 1933 • 21st Amendment, Congress repeals prohibitionDecember 5,1933 • TVATennessee Valley Authority- built dams, roads, electric utility companies. Put government in competition with private business. • AAAAgricultural Adjustment Act- paid farmers to not produce. 6 million pigs slaughtered. 1936 struck down by Supreme Court. 1938 fixed tax issues and changed to Soil Conservation Domestic Allotment Act for 3 years.
The First New Deal: 1933-1934 • NRA National Recovery Administration-June 16-Separates industries and lets them make codes of fair competition with production and price controls, workers wages and hours, under government regulation. Very Controversial. Struck down by Supreme Court 1935.
The Second New Deal: 1935-1938 Reform • Second New Deal 1935-1938 More liberal-controversial • NLRB National Labor Relations Board, organized factory union elections by secret ballot. Big business did not like it! • Resettlement Act- 1935 • New farm methods training for Farmers, • Bought 10,000,000 acres convert to pasture, forest, game preserves, or parks • People taken off of the land and put to work • Social Security Act-1935-Funded by payroll taxes to provide old-age retirement, disability insurance, aid for families with children • WPA Work Projects Administration-1935construction of public buildings, schools bridges and roads-Artists, writers, actors, photographers to employ, entertain and beautify public spaces.
diegoRivera (Not WPA artist) Diego Rivera, Detroit Museum 1929
WPA Murals Lettuce Pickers, George Samerjan 1942 Calexico, CA “Early Spanish Caballeros”, Lew E. Davis, 1940 Los Banos, CA
WPA art William Gropper, Miners, 1935 The New Deal, Conrad A. Albrizio, 1934 Hugo Gellert, The Working Day, no. 37 (c. 1933) Hugo Gellert, A Wounded Striker and the Soldier (1936)
Critics of the New Deal • Some felt the New Deal interfered in Americans’ lives. Government should not run people’s lives, for example: work programs, social security. • Big business thought FDR was a “socialist,” a person who believes that the government should control business • Some union leaders criticized FDR for not helping old people, not taking money from the wealthy, for siding with big business
The Legacy of the New Deal • Lasting Effects: • 1) Strong central power in the presidency (the power of the Oval Office) • 2) Changed expectation that government should help people: greater security for the average man.
Did the New Deal Work? • How it worked: • It created jobs and business incentives: • Social Security helped retired people; the stock market was regulated; insured banks; unemployed rate and failed businesses rate dropped between 1934-1937. • Roosevelt and his New Deal did much more compared to Hoover about the Depression
Did the New Deal Work? How it failed By1938, unemployment was up to 19% The federal debt increased under FDR. U.S. Supreme Court declared some programs unconstitutional Farm Program, AAA, did not work
Respond to FDR about the New Deal (as the Reflection #3, pg. 69 for this lesson) Write a letter thanking or criticizing President Roosevelt for the New Deal. • Include these elements: • A proper salutation, such as “Dear Mr. President • Praise or criticize at least three specific New Deal Programs in the letter. Please highlight each one.