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Professor, Dr. Jin BQ NJNU

Professor, Dr. Jin BQ NJNU

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Professor, Dr. Jin BQ NJNU

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  1. Chapter3 Carbohydrates Nutrition Professor, Dr. Jin BQ NJNU

  2. §1 Basic ConceptP24-29 • Compounds: C、H、O • Catalog /Classification 1 Monosaccarides:3-7C Hexose (6C) eg: Glucose, Galactose, Fructose 2 Disaccarides: Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose, Trehalose

  3. 3 Oligosaccarides 3-10 Mono- eg: Raffinose Stachyose 4 Polysaccarides Macro-M eg: Glycogen Starch Fiber P25

  4. Other Classification 1 Available Polysaccarides 1.1Starch: Amylose (直链) Amylopectin (支链) 1.2 Dextrins & Glycogen 2 Undigestible Polysaccarides Dietary Fiber (so important for human now) Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignin Pectin P26-27

  5. Important Function 1 Store and Supply of Energy 4kcal/g (16.7kJ), mostly 2 Composition of body 3 Sparing protein action 4 Antiketogenesis: >50-100g/d 5 Improving flavor of foods 6 Supply of dietary fiber P27

  6. §2 Digestion, Absorption and Utilization 1Digestion Absorption P28

  7. 1.1 Way/ Track: Mouth Upper small intestine Blood Liver 1.2Absorbing type Monosaccarides 1.3Absorbing speed Glucose> Galactose >Frucose(<50%)

  8. 2 Utilization 2.1Economic Energy by Glucose into GE 2.2 Coefficient exchange E 2.3 Food Sources from Cereals and potatoes 2.4 Ratio of Supply 50-70% optimum = 55-60% 2.5 Ideal Ratio in Diet : Carbohydrate : Protein : Fat = 6:2:2

  9. Recommendation

  10. §3 Hazards from Carbohydrate 1 Cereal Allergy 2 Lactose Intolerance 3 Glycemic Index 4 Over or Absent Fiber in Diet

  11. Chapter 4 Energy §1Concept • Components • Conservation • Gentle Bio-action by Eynzem • Storageby ATP P29-35

  12. from food into blood can be used in body

  13. 5Units • Calorie: Cal • kilocalorie: kcal = 4.184 kJ • Joule: J • kilo-joule: kJ = 0.239 kcal • Million-joule: MJ = 1000 kJ = 10-6J 239 kcal P29 Ratio: Carb: Fat: Protein = 4: 9: 4 P30 Definition : Heating 1g pure H2O form 15℃to 16℃ exhausted 1 cal

  14. 6 Analysis Method & Instrument • 燃烧法 (P34) • 氧弹式能量测定仪 (direct calorimetry) Usually used this method to measure Energy in food

  15. §2 Energy Consume in Human 1 Respiratory Quotient (RQ, indirect calorimetry): The processing is that food is degraded and oxygenated to CO2 from O2 exhausted in body RQ = CO2 : O2 • Carbohydrate RQ:1.0 • Protein RQ:0.707 • Fat RQ:0.801 • Mixed food RQ:0 .85 P35

  16. 2 Basic Metabolism Ratio of Gross / Total Energy • Basic Energy Expenditure (BEE) = 60-75% • Actives Index (AI) = 15-30% • Specific Dynamic Action (SDA) = 10%

  17. 2.1 Surface Area M2=0.00659 × H(cm) × 0.0126W(kg) – 0.1603 2.2 Basic Metabolic Rate (BMR) BMR = M2 /hor ×24hrs = BMR /d • Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)≈BMR (1985, WHO) 2.3 Basic Energy Expenditure(BEE) P30-31 Male:1.0kcal/4.84kJW(kg) 24(h) P32 Female:0.95 kcal/4.0kJW(kg) 24(h) • Resting Energy Expenditure ( REE) ≈ BEE P32-33

  18. Basic Energy Expenditure(BEE) Age 0~3 3~10 10~18 18~30 30-60 > 60 REE 60.9 22.7 17.5 15.3 11.6 13.5 Male W-54 W+495 W+651 W+673 W+879 W +487 REE 61.0 22.5 12.2 14.7 8.7 10.5 Female W-51 W +499 W +746 W +496 W +829 W +506 In 1985, WHO, P32

  19. 2.4 Effects onBasic Metabolism 2.4.1 Surface Area: Large SA is to large BM 反之则小 2.4.2 Age: The highest level in infants Decreased by 2% after 10 years old 2.4.3 Sex:Male > Female 5-10% 2.4.4 Endocrine/Hormone/Diseases Level of T3,T4,E in body 2.4.5 Climate Temperature:14-25℃等 温区概念 超过即升高(10%) 2.4.6 Others P32

  20. 3 Actives Index (AI) Degree V-light Light Middle Heavy V-heavy Male 1.3 1.6 1.7 2.1 2.4 Female 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.9 2.2 5-levels, AI supplies 15-30% in total energy P34

  21. Physical Activity Level (PAL)in China 2001 from AI Degree Light Middle Heavy Male 1.55 1.7 8 2.1 Female 1.56 1.6 4 1.82 RDE(kcal/p/d)=BMR/BEE×AI P34 Three factors are influent AI P33

  22. 4 Specific Dynamic Action (SDA) or Thermic Effect of Food (TEF) from food digested in gut 10% in total energy P33

  23. WHO Recommendation CH2O: CP: EE 50-60:15-20:20-25

  24. China NRC Recommendation 早餐:中餐:晚餐 30: 40: 30