External Team Dynamics--The relationship the team has with the rest of the organization
Team Environment Consists of: The organization Clients served Team Boundary • Separates team from its environment • Affects how knowledge is transferred & resources are distributed • If boundary too ambiguous… • If boundary too defined…
Types of Teams & Their Relationships with the Environment • Insulating • Broadcasting • Marketing • Surveying
Insulating Teams • Sequestered from rest of organization. Most isolated. Why? • Security • Confidentiality • Ostracized • Creativity. Threats? • Failure to develop viable G/S (out of touch) • Lack support or resources • Groupthink.
Surveying Teams • Focus on customer satisfaction • Least isolated (ambiguous boundary) Threats? -Time & resource requirements -Distraction from actually producing a product -Less cohesion (less identity).
Team leader must manage team-environment relationship to be perceived as efficient. Power struggles Status issues Role confusion Resource competition Reputation. Teams need the support of the organization to succeed. Organizations reduce team effectiveness by blocking access to resources.
Roles for External Team Functioning • Page 215--- • Different from roles played for internal team functioning • Boundary Spanner– acts as a bridge between people or units who would not otherwise interact.
The Value of Knowledge What do teams value more, knowledge that comes from within the group (peers) or from outside the group (consultants, competitors)? What is the bias determined by? • Accessibility of unique knowledge • Organizational incentives that reward managers for learning from outsiders • Receiver’s perception of messenger (delivering the information) • Level of competition.
SuccessfulNetworking • Communication • Need rapid dispersion of innovation with minimal effort • Which is more effective, formal communication channels (IT) or informal social networks? Why? • Information is power! • Capital • Human capital= an individual’s intelligence, education, experiences, enthusiasm • Social capital*= opportunity created thru interactions of people; knowing who, when & how to coordinate contacts; creates value for teams.
Networking • Boundary SpanningP. 218 • Clique network • Members cohesive & loyal • Work in same department • Direct contact with one another only • Know one another well • Information shared is redundant • Members dispensable. Why? Examples? Advantages? Disadvantages?
Entrepreneur network • Members know people who don’t know each other • Access to more unique information • Info. spans beyond functional borders & links people, knowledge, ideas & departments • Exposure to more opportunities • “Information brokers” (members indispensable) • More social capital • Boundary spanners. Advantages? Disadvantages?
Strategies for Building Social Networks • Increase number of people team interacts with. How? • Understand clique networks are more biased, less creative • Understand gender differences in social activities • Diversify networks of people(avoid “good ole boy”) • Network vertically in addition to laterally • Integrate with other teamsHow? • Liaison roles • Overlapping membership • Cross functional teams. Why?
Effects of Physical Layout of Organization on Team Productivity • Negative correlation between distance (ft) between employees’ workspaces & interaction (communication) • People who are physically close to one another tend to like & want to work together (Propinquity Effect) • Consider floor plans- • More friendships on same floor • Corner offices make fewer friends • Teams that work in same room are more productive.
Making Deadlines Teams will adapt to any constraints put on them • Time limits • Work load • Group size.