Bell Work – January 19 & 22, 2010 • Open your textbook to page 290. • Answer the Section 8.2 & 8.3 Checkpoint Questions. • Write all the questions.
Today’s Schedule • Bell Work • Discussion and Notes over Section 8.2 & 8.3 • Handout - Reading • Activity • Homework – Read pages 298-301 and complete activity –
Section 8.2 & 8.3 Objectives • Explain how early political parties emerged. • Compare the political views of the Republicans and the Federalists. • Discuss the result of the election of 1796. • Discuss conflicts with Native Americans in NW Territory. • Describe how Americans reacted to French Revolution. • Identify the main points of Washington’s Farewell Address. • Summarize Washington’s accomplishments as President.
8.2 Section Focus Question • How did two political parties emerge? • Political leaders had different ideas about the role of government.
Political Parties Emerge • In the early years of American politics, political factions emerged. • In Washington’s cabinet, Jefferson and Hamilton increasingly grew apart. • In the early 1790s two political parties formed. • One group supported Thomas Jefferson. • The other group supported Alexander Hamilton.
Political Parties Emerge • Political differences between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton led to the development of America’s first political parties. • On what issue did most of the nation’s founders agree? • They agreed that the U.S. should avoid the formation of factions or political parties.
Political Parties Emerge • In the summer of 1792, the conflict between Jefferson and Hamilton started heating up. Hamilton began to write anonymous columns in newspapers friendly to his cause, in which he attacked Jefferson’s character and principles. • In one article, he insulted Jefferson, calling him an “intriguing incendiary”. Thus began a tradition of personal attacks on opponents that survives to this day in American politics.
Republicans • Got their name from political clubs called Democratic-Republican Societies. • Argued that the federal government was growing too strong under President Washington. • Wanted to keep most power at the state or local level. • Feared strong central gov’t would act like a monarchy.
Republicans • Led by Thomas Jefferson • Believe people should have political power • Favored strong state gov’t • Strict interpretation of Constitution • Pro-French • Opposed National Bank • Opposed Protective Tariff • Emphasized agriculture
Republicans • Strong among southern planters and northern farmers and artisans. • James Madison was also a key leader • Jefferson resigned as Secretary of State in 1793 over the government’s policies.
Federalists • Strong in the North • Led by Alexander Hamilton • Took their name from the people who had supported the adoption of the Constitution after 1787. • They drew support from merchants, other property owners, and ordinary workers • Believed wealthy and educated should lead.
Federalists • Favored strong central government • Emphasized manufacturing, shipping, and trade • Favored loose interpretation of Constitution • Pro-British • Favored National Bank • Favored Protective tariff
Political Parties • What was the Federalists’ advantage? • President Washington usually supported Hamilton and his policies. • What kind of government did the Republicans support? • Strong state governments and limited federal government. • What kind of government did Federalists support? • A strong federal government
Election of 1796 • Washington decided not to seek a third term. • Republican candidate – Thomas Jefferson • Federalist candidate – John Adams • In 1796, the President and Vice-President were not elected together on one ticket. • They could be from different parties. • Winner – President, 1st Runner-up - Vice
Election of 1796 • John Adams (Federalist) won the presidency • Thomas Jefferson (Republican) came in second. Vice President • How might the election process affect the way the President and Vice President worked together? • Because the President and Vice could be from opposing parties with different political views, it may have been difficult for them to agree on gov’t policies and procedures.
8.3 Section Focus Question • How did the actions of Britain and France affect the United States? • Tension resulted when Americans disagreed on how to respond to the actions of Britain and France.
Conflicts in NW Territory • The British still had forts west of the Ohio River ten years after the end of the Revolutionary War. • British soldiers were supplying Native Americans with guns and ammunition. • Native Americans continued to struggle to retain their ancestral lands. • They attacked American settlements.
Conflicts in the NW Territory • In the early 1790s, Washington sent out small forces to stop the Native American groups attacking settlers. • After two defeats, Washington sent a larger force led by General Anthony Wayne. • 1794 – Wayne won a major victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. • This battle broke the Native American hold on the Northwest.
Background on Fallen Timbers • The Battle of Fallen Timbers, August 20, 1794, has been called the “last battle of the American Revolution” and one of the most important battles in the development of our nation. The decisive victory by the United States over a confederacy of Indian tribes opened the Northwest Territory, a five-state region unceded by the native inhabitants, for westward expansion and led to Ohio’s statehood in 1803! The battle took place amid trees toppled by a tornado just north of the Maumee River in the present-day city of Maumee. The legion was commanded by General “Mad” Anthony Wayne, a veteran of Valley Forge handpicked by President Washington to oversee the new nation’s first professional army. Wayne’s force, made up of 1,600 to 1,700 “regulars” and 1,500 members of the Kentucky Militia, marched north from Cincinnati to build a series of forts between the Ohio and Maumee rivers. Among Wayne’s officers was 21-year-old General William Henry Harrison, who would become the ninth president of the United States. Fewer than 100 men on each side died in the brief battle, but the Legion’s victory marked a major turning point in the battle for the western frontier. The victory led to the signing the Treaty Greenville in 1795. Without the treaty, portions of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin might have remained a buffer zone between Indian and settled territory, or even become part of British-controlled Canada.
Conflicts in NW Territory • What was the impact of the Treaty of Greenville? • Defeated Native Americans lost their lands in the Northwest. (from the Ohio River in the south to Lake Erie in the north) • In exchange, American Indians received $20,000 worth of goods and U.S. recognition of the lands they still held.
The French Revolution • Began in 1789 • Most Americans initially supported the French revolutionaries cause. • American support began to wane when the Reign of Terrorbegan. • The French revolutionaries executed about 17,000 peopleincluding the king and queen, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette.
The French Revolution • In what ways were the goals of the French Revolution similar to the ideals of the founders of the United States? • They both were fighting a monarchy and were inspired by the principles of liberty.
The French Revolution • By 1793 – France and Britain were at war. • The United States remained neutral. • The British impressment of American ships deteriorated the neutral relationship with the United States. • Def: The act of compelling men to serve in a navy by force and without notice. • Because the United States depended on British trade, Washington attempted an act of diplomacy by sending John Jay to London to resolve the problem.
The Jay Treaty • In 1795, John Jay returned with a treaty whereby the United States agreed to pay debts long owed to British merchants. • In return, Britain agreed to pay for the ships it had seized and withdraw its troops from the Northwest Territory and stop aiding Native Americans there.
The Jay Treaty • Britain refused to recognize the U.S. right to trade with France and refused to cease impressmentof U.S. sailors. • Republicans disapproved of the treaty because little was gained. • Federalists liked the treaty because it kept peace with Britain. • Jay Treaty won approval in Congress.
Washington Retires • 1796 – Washington published a farewell letter to the nation. • Washington’s Farewell Address made 2 important points: • The President warned against political divisions at home, fearing they would divide the nation. • Washington emphasized his belief that the United States must not get entangled in the affairs of Europe.
Washington Retires • What do you think were important factors in Washington’s success as president? • Washington’s accomplishments: • Functioning federal government • Improving economy • Avoiding war • British forced to leave forts in NW Territory after 10 years.
In-Class Activity • In groups of 2-3, choose the Federalist or Republican Party • Each group is to create a poster, flyer, or pamphlet to persuade others to join your party. • Be creative, descriptive, and colorful! • Due next class period
Bell Work – January 21th& 25th • Open your textbook to page 298 • Complete the Section 8.4 Checkpoint questions. • Also, complete the Skills Activity questions “A” and “B” on page 299.
Today’s Schedule • Bell Work • Discussion and Notes over Section 8.4 • Section 8.1-8.3 Quiz • Begin NHD Presentations if time allows • Homework: Study for exam
Bell Work – January 26 & 27 • Open your textbook to page 282. • Define the Section 8.1 Key Terms • Use each term in a sentence.
Today’s Agenda • Bell Work/Current Events • Review for Exam • Notecards • NHD Presentations • HWK: Study for Exam, complete Chapter 8 Review and Assessment, 1-10
Section 8.4 Objectives • Discuss the reasons for tension between the United States and France. • Describe the main provisions of the Alien and Sedition Acts. • Explain how controversy arose over states’ rights.
8.4 Section Focus Question • How did problems with France intensify the split between the Federalists and Republicans? • Political divisions grew bitter during the presidency of John Adams, as he struggled to keep peace with France.
Presidency of John Adams • What issues caused increased tension in the United States between 1793 and 1797? • The failure of the United States to ally itself with France during the war between France and Britain; Jay’s Treaty
The XYZ Affair • The Facts: • Adams sent three-person mission to France. • French Minister Talleyrand demanded a personal bribe of $250,000 . • France also wanted the U.S. to lend them $12 million dollars. • The U.S. refused.
The XYZ Affair • The bribe attempt was leaked to the public, and it became a public sensation. • The names of the French agents were kept secret, so they were called X, Y, & Z. • The affair caused an outbreak of war fever in the U.S. • Adams went as far as to ask Congress to increase the size of the army and rebuild the navy.
XYZ Affair • U.S. waged an undeclared naval war with France between 1798 and 1800. • In the two years of warfare between France and the US, American ships sank or captured nearly 90 French vessels on the high seas .
The XYZ Affair • Why did the XYZ Affair anger Americans so much? • The U.S. had approached France to negotiate, and Americans felt that France had responded unfairly. • Adams sent a new mission to France to avoid war but this move angered leaders in the Federalist party.
XYZ Affair • Why do you think the Federalists were angry at Adams for avoiding war with France? • Federalists tended to support Britain in that country’s struggles with France.
Alien and Sedition Acts • During Adams’ term in office, Federalists also passed drastic laws to limit immigration and restrict free speech. • Federalist suspected immigrants of bringing in dangerous ideas. • Look at political cartoon on page 299
The Alien Act • The Alien Act of 1798 – increased the length of time from 5 to 14 years that a person had to live in the United States to become a citizen. • The President gained the power to deport or imprison any alien he considered dangerous.
The Sedition Act • Law targeting Republicans • Sedition is the activity designed to overthrow a government. • Law was possibly the harshest law limiting free speech ever passed in the U.S. • It made it a crime for anyone to write or say anything insulting or anything false about the President, Congress, or the government in general.
States’ Rights • The Republicans denounced the Alien and Sedition acts. • They charged that the Sedition Act violated the Constitution(1st Amendment – freedom of speech) • At this time, it was not clearly established that the Supreme Court could strike down as law as unconstitutional.
States’ Rights • Republicans James Madison and Thomas Jefferson led the campaign for states’ rights. • Virginia Resolution – written by Madison • Passed by the Virginia legislature • Kentucky Resolution – written by Jefferson • Passed by the Kentucky legislature