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Bacterial Physiology (Micr430)

Bacterial Physiology (Micr430)

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Bacterial Physiology (Micr430)

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  1. Bacterial Physiology (Micr430) Lecture 1 Overview of Bacterial Physiology (Text Chapters: 1 and 2)

  2. Bacterial Physiology • Study of how bacteria function including such processes as nutrition, growth, reproduction and locomotion

  3. CELL STRUCTURE • The typical bacterial cell (most knowledge is from studies of Escherichia coli)

  4. CELL STRUCTURE • The Cell Surface: the interface between bacterial cell and its external environment. It consists of: • Cell Wall • Membranes • Capsules • Organs of Locomotion • Pili or Fimbriae

  5. Cell surfaces of Gram- and Gram+ bacteria

  6. Cell membrane Cell, 2006

  7. The glycocalyx: layers of matrix outside cell wall.

  8. Capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae

  9. Flagella and fimbriae

  10. CELL STRUCTURE • The Cytoplasm: the space within the cellular membranes. It consists of: • Ribosomes: protein synthesis • Soluble (invisible) proteins: metabolism • Nucleoid: site of genetic material - DNA

  11. SYNTHESIS OF DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN • DNA • replication

  12. SYNTHESIS OF DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN • Transcription & translation

  13. Metabolic and Genetic Regulation

  14. MICROBIAL GENETICS • Definitions to review: • Gene: a heritable unit of function composed of a specific sequence of purine and pyrimidine bases, which in turn determines sequence of the corresponding RNA and proteins. • Genotype: sum total of all of the hereditary units of genes. • Phenotype: the observed expression of the genetic determinants.

  15. MICROBIAL GENETICS • Define following terms: • Alleles. • Mutagenesis. • Wild-type. • Spontaneous mutations.

  16. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS • Chemical composition of cell • 55% protein • 3.1% DNA • 16.7 rRNA • 3% tRNA • 0.8% mRNA • 9.1% lipids • E. coli cell can make a perfect copy of itself in 40 min in minimal glucose media

  17. Major pathwaysof carbohydratemetabolism

  18. Biosynthetic pathways leading to the amino acids and others

  19. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS • Energy • Substrate-level phosphorylation: ATP production during carbohydrate catabolism • Oxidative phosphorylation: ATP production using energy conserved in electrical and chemical gradient (PMF) across cell membrane • PMF: Proton motive force is formed during electron transport through a series of electron carriers on the membrane

  20. Nitrogen Assimilation

  21. ENDOSPORES

  22. GROWTH CURVE