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THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

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THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

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  1. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

  2. Essential Question: What were the important causes and effects of the French Revolution?

  3. Which of the following best describes the relationship between England and the American colonists BEFORE the French And Indian War? • The English king strictly controlled the colonists • American colonists made their own laws in self-governing assemblies • American colonists were free to trade with whomever they wanted • American colonists were ready to rebel against England #1

  4. What was an effect of the French and Indian War? • The war gave Americans their independence from England • France gained more land in North America • England won the war against France, but had massive war debts to pay off • Americans created self-governing assemblies after the war #2

  5. How did Americans respond to the Stamp Act? • Colonists protested by using boycotts • Colonists happily paid their taxes • Colonists demanded immediate independence from England • Colonists starting using salutary neglect #3

  6. Which Enlightenment philosophe most influenced the ideas in the Declaration of Independence? • Baron de Montesquieu • Jean-Jacques Rousseau • Cesare Beccaria • John Locke #4

  7. Which of the following ideas was NOT USED in creating the Constitution (America’s new government after independence)? • Popular Sovereignty • Separation of Powers • Limited Monarchy • Protection of Individual Liberties #5

  8. Which of the following best describes the relationship between England and the American colonists BEFORE the French And Indian War? • The English king strictly controlled the colonists • American colonists made their own laws in self-governing assemblies • American colonists were free to trade with whomever they wanted • American colonists were ready to rebel against England #1 ANSWER: B

  9. What was an effect of the French and Indian War? • The war gave Americans their independence from England • France gained more land in North America • England won the war against France, but had massive war debts to pay off • Americans created self-governing assemblies after the war ANSWER: C #2

  10. How did Americans respond to the Stamp Act? • Colonists protested by using boycotts • Colonists happily paid their taxes • Colonists demanded immediate independence from England • Colonists starting using salutary neglect ANSWER: A #3

  11. Which Enlightenment philosophe most influenced the ideas in the Declaration of Independence? • Baron de Montesquieu • Jean-Jacques Rousseau • Cesare Beccaria • John Locke #4 ANSWER: D

  12. Which of the following ideas was NOT USED in creating the Constitution (America’s new government after independence)? • Popular Sovereignty • Separation of Powers • Limited Monarchy • Protection of Individual Liberties #5 ANSWER: C

  13. Reasons for the French Revolution In the 1700s, France was the cultural capital of Europe, home to numerous Enlightenment thinkers, and had wealth from colonies King Louis XIV was the most powerful king in Europe King Louis XIV

  14. Reasons for the French Revolution After his 1715 death, Louis XV and XVI continued to rule France as absolute monarchs But, political and economic problems led to the French Revolution in 1789 King Louis XVI

  15. One problem was France’s unequal social hierarchy that was made up of three classes (called estates) The clergy (priests) of the Roman Catholic Church made up the First Estate They owned 10% of land in France but paid little in taxes to the government

  16. One problem was France’s unequal social hierarchy that was made up of three classes (called estates) The Second Estate was made up of rich nobles They owned 20% of French land but were exempt from paying taxes

  17. One problem was France’s unequal social hierarchy that was made up of three classes (called estates) The Third Estate made up 97% of the population and included poor peasants but also the well-educated middle class (bourgeoisie) This group paid 50% of their income in taxes

  18. The members of the Third Estate resented (hated) the special treatment the First and Second Estates received This cartoon shows the poor Third Estate carrying the burden of the First and Second Estates

  19. Members of the Third Estate gained inspiration from the Enlightenment ideas of John Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau After seeing the success of the American Revolution, the Third Estate began demanding democracy, equality,andlibertyinFrance

  20. Social tensions were made worse by a growing financial crisis in the 1770s and 1780s The French government faced massive debts due to decades of lavish spending, expensive wars, and poor economic planning GOVERNMENT DEBTS (percentage of total government revenue)

  21. By 1789, half the budget went towards intereston the national debt; 25% of people were unemployed

  22. The excessive spending by King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette angered French citizens Marie Antoinette, “Madame Deficit”

  23. By 1789, France was out of money and faced a serious financial crisis Louis XVI called an emergency meeting of the Estates-General where members from all 3 classes could advise the king

  24. During the Estates-General, the First and Second Estates voted to increase taxes on the Third Estate The First and Second Estates decided to vote by order(1 vote per estate) rather than by head (by person) These decisions angered the members of the Third Estate who believed their rights were being violated

  25. The Third Estate formed a new National Assembly to make laws for the French people In 1789, the National Assembly swore to an oath promising a new constitution and limitations on the king’s power

  26. The National Assembly wrote their revolutionary ideals in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen which said: “Men are born free and equal in rights” Rights include “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression” It guaranteed freedom of speech, and freedom of religion, and equal justice

  27. Meanwhile, the economic crisis continued Citizens were without food and faced starvation Angry protestors in Paris demanded new reforms

  28. When rumors circulated that the king was going to send his army to Paris, citizens attacked the prison Bastille to seize weapons to defend themselves

  29. The storming of the Bastille in 1789 represented the beginning of the French Revolution

  30. In 1791, Louis XVI (16th)finally agreed to a new constitution that limited his power and created a limited monarchy But, Louis XVI failed to work with the National Assembly and France’s problems continued

  31. Fearing the spread of France’s revolutionary ideas, Austria and Prussia (nations with monarchs) assembled armies to restore France’s absolute monarchy

  32. In 1792, radicals took control of France and made important decisions: The radicals declared war against Austria and Prussia and 300,000 French soldiers were drafted into a national army in order to defend France

  33. The French monarchy was overthrown and democratic republic was created; it was called the National Convention The slogan of the French Revolution became: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”

  34. In 1793, King Louis XVI was arrested, convicted of treason, and executed by guillotine

  35. In 1793, King Louis XVI was arrested, convicted of treason, and executed by guillotine

  36. In 1793, King Louis XVI was arrested, convicted of treason, and executed by guillotine

  37. The Guillotine

  38. The radical leaders of the National Convention feared that “enemies of the revolution” would try to overthrow the new republic

  39. In 1793, radical Maximilien Robespierre slowly gained control of the National Convention

  40. From 1793 to 1794, Robespierre executed 30,000 “traitors” during an era known as the Reign of Terror Not everyone Robespierre executed was a traitor; the Reign of Terror ended when French citizens turned on Robespierre and executed him

  41. The Revolution came to an end in 1795, but France was in chaos The economic crisis had not been solved and people faced starvation

  42. England, Holland, and Spain joined Austria and Prussia in the anti-revolutionary war against France

  43. The National Convention was replaced by France’s third government in six years called the Directory The Directory proved to be ineffective and corrupt

  44. RISE OF NAPOLEON In 1799, a French military general named Napoleon Bonaparte led a coup d'état and seized power in France As emperor of France, Napoleon introduced needed reforms, defeated foreign armies, and conquered a massive French empire

  45. Closure Activity • Creating an Enlightenment Encyclopedia: • Working with a partner, create an entry into Diderot’s Encyclopedia about one key idea or person of the Enlightenment • Use the template provided to provide a brief summary of the person/idea and create a brief sketch • When finished, hang it up in the room to create a classroom encyclopedia • Be prepared to present on your topic

  46. title summary sketch your names

  47. Encyclopedia Entries • Colonial assemblies • Reasons for the American Revolution • “No Taxation without Representation” • Declaration of Independence • American Revolution • Constitution • Thomas Jefferson • Reasons for the French Revolution • Estates-General • National Assembly • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen • National Convention • Louis XVI • Maximilien Robespierre • Guillotine • Reign of Terror • Napoleon Bonaparte