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Principles of Project Management

Principles of Project Management

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Principles of Project Management

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  1. Principles of Project Management How to help make your projects more successful Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  2. Why Project Management? • Learn from lessons, success, and mistakes of others • Better understanding of financial, physical, and human resources • Successful Project Management Contributes to • Improved customer relations • Shorter development times • Lower costs • Higher quality and increased reliability • Improved productivity • Project Management Generally Provides • Better internal coordination • Higher worker morale Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  3. Why Projects Fail Communications • Misunderstandings • Not Talking, Emailing etc. Scope Creep Poor planning Weak business case Lack of management direction & involvement • Lack of Resources • Talking and Not Building Incomplete specifications • Excessive Specifications Mismanagement of expectations • $ Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  4. Project Management Benefits for the Individual • Develops leaders in organization with a detailed understanding of multiple areas of the organization • Cross departmental communication and networking • Benefits not limited to just the Project • Manager, Team members get same exposure • Attention from executive management team • Reputation of being a team player, problem solver, and a get things done person Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  5. Organization • Lectures • Presentations • Book Chapters • And Discussions! • Sample Projects • Plan, Schedule and Allocate Resources • Review • Practice Tests • Joint Attempt At Questions • http://www.yancy.org/research/project_management.html Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  6. Lectures 1 - Introduction to Project Management 2 - Project Management Context 2’- Project Management for Dummies - Summary 3 - Project Management Integration 4 - Project Scope Management 5 - Project Time Management 6 - Project Cost Management 7 - Project Quality Management 8 - Project Human Resource Management 9 - Project Communications Management 10 - Project Risk Management 11 - Project Procurement Management 12 - Project Management as a Profession Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  7. Sources – Use the Web • Project Management Institute: www.pmi.org • Project World: www.projectworld.com • Software Program Managers Network: www.spmn.com • PM forum: www.allpm.com • ESI International: www.esi-intl.com • Project Bailout – www.ProjectBailout.com • “Project Management for Dummies” • “Project Planning Scheduling & Control,” James P. Lewis • A Hands-on Guide to Bringing Projects in on time and On Budget Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  8. Why are you here? • Who are you • What is your background? • Why • What do you want to learn? • How much effort? • Me • Jim Bullough-Latsch, jbl@ProjectBailout.com • 20 years managing projects, 818-993-3722 • All material will be provided on a CD! • Sign In, Email Addresses etc. • Exchange Business Cards Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  9. Mapping Lectures and Lewis Book • Introduction to Project Management • Chapter 1 – Introduction to PM • Project Management Context • Chapter 5 – Headless Chicken • Project Management Integration • Chapter 6 – Project Strategy • Chapter 7 – Implementation Plan • Project Scope Management • Chapter 9 – Scheduling • Project Time Management • Project Cost Management • Project Quality Management • Project Human Resource Management • Project Communications Management • Project Risk Management • Chapter 8 • Project Procurement Management • Project Management as a Profession • Chapter 3 Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  10. CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Project Management Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  11. PM is used in all industries, at all levels Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  12. Why Project Management? • Better control of financial, physical, and human resources • Accountability • Learn from mistakes of others! • Improved customer relations • More Managed Outcomes • Lower costs • Higher quality and increased reliability • Higher profit margins • Improved productivity • Better internal coordination • Higher worker morale Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  13. Why Projects Fail • Poor communications • Scope Creep • Poor planning • Weak business case • Lack of management direction & involvement • Incomplete specifications • Mismanagement of expectations Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  14. Project versus Program What is a project? • Temporary and unique • Definite beginning and end • Unique purpose • Require resources, often from various areas involve uncertainty Note: temporary does not mean short in duration What is a program? • A group of projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available to managing them individually • Long Term for: a collection of projects Same Techniques Work for Projects, Products, & Programs! • Use them where they work! Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  15. Triple Constraints Theory Every project is constrained in different ways by its • Scope goals: What is the project trying to accomplish? • Time goals: How long should it take to complete? • Cost goals: What should it cost? It is the project manager’s duty to balance these three often competing goals Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  16. Project Management Framework Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  17. Project Stakeholders • Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities • Stakeholders include • the project sponsor and project team • support staff • customers • users • Suppliers and vendors • opponents to the project Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  18. PM Knowledge Areas Knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop • core knowledge areas lead to specific project objectives (scope, time, cost, and quality) • facilitating knowledge areas are the means through which the project objectives are achieved (human resources, communication, risk, and procurement management • knowledge area (project integration management) affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  19. Relationship to other disciplines Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  20. PM Tools & Techniques • Project management tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in various aspects of project management • #1 communicating with people!! • Some specific ones include • Project Charter and Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) (scope) • Gantt charts, network diagrams, critical path analysis, critical chain scheduling (time) • Cost estimates and earned value management (cost) Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  21. Sample GANTT Chart Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  22. Sample Network Diagram Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  23. Sample Earned Value Chart Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  24. Points From Lewis Chapter 1 • A project is a one-time job, as opposed to a repetitive activity • Disagree, can make repetitive into a series of projects • Project management is facilitation of the planning, scheduling, and controlling of all activities that must be done to meet project objectives. • ??????????? • Principle: Can assign values to only three of the PCTS constraints • Performance, Cost, Time, Scope • Disagree - There are relationship, but it is not magic • Principle: To reduce both cost and time in a project, must change the process by which you do work. • Maybe “Understand” and control is better than change Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  25. Lewis Principles Chapter 1 • Principle: Improving quality reduces costs. • Partially Agree • Controlling quality contributes to controlling cost • Bugs / Errors Cost Money • Formal QA Organizations can be negative • Good Project Management includes tools, people, and systems • Tools are not very important! • The people who must do the work should develop the plan • Disagree – The people who do the work should contribute to the plan, but some project management is needed to focus the effort. • The Thought process can be applied to any project regardless o type or size • Agree Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  26. “Lewis Method” Five Phases • Definition • Planning Strategy • Implementation Planning • Execution and Control • Lessons Learned • I have only worked at one company that practiced this, TRW called it a debriefing or post mortem • Usually everyone is gone prior to the completion! Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  27. Projects for Homework • Sample Project • Plan, Schedule, and Presentation • Develop a brief project plan and top-level schedule (MS Project is preferred). • Effort at Each Session • Discuss Concepts • Assign Teams, Choose Subject, Divide work • You can do home work to make it better • Plan and Document • Schedule • Coordinate • Keep it simple • Present for Review • Criticize Others • Update • Project Can Be Anything • Suggested Projects - Defaults Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  28. CHAPTER 2 Project Management Context Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  29. Projects are not Isolated • Projects must operate in a broad organizational environment • Project managers need to take a holistic or systems view of a project and understand how it is situated within the larger organization • Systems View to Project Management • Systems philosophy: View things as systems, interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose • Systems analysis: problem-solving approach • Systems management: Address business, technological, and organizational issues before making changes to systems Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  30. Project Phases • Projects are divided up into phases, collectively project phases are known as the project lifecycle • The Phases often overlap!!! • Project phases are marked by completion of one or more deliverables • Deliverable is a tangible, verifiable work product • Questions at the end of each phase (known as phase exits, kill points, or stage gates) • Determine if the project should continue • Detect and correct errors cost effectively • Deliverables from the preceding phase are usually approved before work exceeds 20% of the next phase’s budget • IE Overlapping work is done at cost risk to meet schedule • FAST TRACKING: projects that have overlapping phases Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  31. Project Lifecycle • Most project lifecycles have common characteristics • Phases: Concept, Development, Implementation, Support • Cost and staffing levels are low to start and higher toward the end and drop rapidly as the project draws to conclusion • Stakeholders have more influence in the early phases of the project • Cost of changes and error correction often increases as the project continues • Some changes can be deferred until after delivery Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  32. Phases of the Project Life Cycle Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  33. Project Life Cycle • Determination of Mission Need—ends with Concept Studies Approval • Concept Exploration and Definition—ends with Concept Demonstration Approval • Demonstration and Validation –ends with Development Approval • Engineering and Manufacturing –ends with Production Approval • Production and Deployment –overlaps with Operations and Support Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  34. Systems Development Life Cycles • Waterfall model: has well-defined, linear stages of systems development and support • Spiral model: shows that software is developed using an iterative or spiral approach rather than a linear approach • Incremental release model: provides for progressive development of operational software • RAD model: used to produce systems quickly without sacrificing quality • Prototyping model: used for developing prototypes to clarify user requirements Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  35. The Waterfall Model of the Software Life Cycle Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  36. Spiral Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  37. Fast Tracking / Overlap of Processes Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  38. Extreme Programming- Focuses on customer driven changes Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  39. Organizational Structures Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  40. Critical Success Factors • Critical Success Factors According to the Standish Group’s report CHAOS 2001: A Recipe for Success, the following items help IT projects succeed, in order of importance: • Executive support • User involvement • Experience project manager • Clear business objectives • Minimized scope • Standard software infrastructure • Firm basic requirements • Formal methodology • Reliable estimates Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  41. Headless Chicken (Lewis) • Software Projects – 1990s • 17% Succeeded • 33% Failed • 50% Revised • Headless Chick is about a bird dying • Body keeps moving after head is cut off! Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  42. More on The Lewis Method • Projects often fail at the beginning, not at the end. • Agree • The false consensus effect is a failure to manage disagreement, because no knows it exists. • Not that important …. • I think this is also the blind leading the blind • Process will always affect task performance. • Agree Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  43. Lewis … • Write the Mission Statement • Write something would be better • The first objective for a project manager is to achieve a shared understanding of the team’s mission. • Disagree, it is important, but $ and convincing yourself are more important • The way a problem is defined determines how we attempt to solve it. • ??? Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  44. Lewis and Strategy • Strategy is an overall approach to a project. • Game plan • It is best not to employ cutting-edge technology in a project that has very tight deadline. • It is usually best to use proven technology. (period!) • It is best to separate discovery from development. • Agree Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  45. Project Management For Dummies – Chapter 2’ Project Management For DummiesBy Stanley E. PortnyISBN: 0-7645-5283-XFormat: PaperPages: 384 PagesPub. Date: October 2000 Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  46. PART I: Defining Your Project and Developing Your Game Plan. Chapter 1: What Is Project Management? (And Do I Get Paid Extra to Do It?). Chapter 2: Defining What You're Trying to Accomplish — and Why. Chapter 3: Getting from Here to There. Chapter 4: You Want This Done When? Chapter 5: Estimating Resource Requirements. Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  47. PART II: Organizing the Troops. Chapter 6: The Who and the How of Project Management. Chapter 7: Involving the Right People in Your Project. Chapter 8: Defining Team Members' Roles and Responsibilities. Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  48. PART III: Steering the Ship. Chapter 9: Starting Off on the Right Foot. Chapter 10: Tracking Progress and Maintaining Control. Chapter 11: Keeping Everyone Informed. Chapter 12: Encouraging Peak Performance. Chapter 13: Bringing Your Project to a Close. Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  49. PART IV: Getting Better and Better. Chapter 14: Dealing with Risk and Uncertainty. Chapter 15: Using the Experience You've Gained. Chapter 16: With All the Great New Technology, What's Left for You to Do? Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  50. PART V: The Part of Tens. Chapter 17: Ten Questions to Help You Plan Your Project. Chapter 18: Ten Ways to Hold People Accountable. Chapter 19: Ten Steps to Getting Your Project Back on Track. Chapter 20: Ten Tips for Being a Better Project Manager. Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com