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Steep Turns

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Steep Turns

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  1. Steep Turns

  2. Knowledge of Elements • Turning performance limits • Power of the engine • load factor limits • aerodynamic characteristics • Overbanking Tendency

  3. Knowledge of Elements • Static Stability • shallow turn - plane tries to return to wings level • medium turn - plane remains in medium bank

  4. Knowledge of Elements • Steep turn - tries to steepen bank • Why overbanking occurs • difference in speed of inside and outside wing • outside wing develops more lift

  5. Knowledge of Elements • with a medium bank the force created balances the force of the inherent lateral stability • with a steep bank the lift differential overbalances the lateral stability and counteractive pressure on the ailerons is needed

  6. Knowledge of Elements • Effects of Torque • in left turn there is a tendency to develop a slight skid. You may need to add right rudder • in a right turn the is a tendency to slip. You may need to add right rudder

  7. Knowledge of Elements • To maintain a constant airspeed, power must be added • As back pressure is applied to maintain lift, induced drag increases so power must be added

  8. Select an Altitude • No lower than 1,500 feet AGL • +100/-100 so use 1,600 • Use an altitude that is easy to read • Ensure both you and examiner know your starting altitude

  9. Reference Point • Select a prominent landmark to use as a reference point

  10. Select an Entry Airspeed • Do clearing turns to ensure the area is clear of other traffic • Establish an entry airspeed not to exceed VA • Remember that VA changes with gross weight

  11. Select an Entry Airspeed • Load factor at 50o is ~1.5 and increase to 2 at 60o

  12. Enter Steep Turn • Heading toward reference point roll into a coordinated turn with an angle of bank of 50o +5/-5 • As the turn begins, add back pressure to increase the angle of attack

  13. Enter Steep Turn • As you go through 30o, add power if necessary to maintain entry altitude and airspeed

  14. Enter Steep Turn • Trim to relieve excess control pressure • Begin rollout one half the angle of bank 20-25 degrees before your reference point • Look and clear before all turns.

  15. Division of Attention • Do not stare at any one object • Maintain orientation as well as altitude requires an awareness of the relative position of the nose, the horizon, the wings and the amount of turn

  16. Division of Attention • Use visual and instrument references to hold altitude and remain oriented • Keep attitude indicator at 50o • Roll into a turn in the opposite direction

  17. Division of Attention • Keep VSI at or near 0 fpm • Check heading and altitude • Scan for outside traffic • Maintain control of your aircraft

  18. To recover from an excessive nose-low attitude reduce the angle of bank • Add back elevator pressure to raise the nose • Reestablish the desire angle of bank

  19. Division of Attention • Attempting to raise the nose without decreasing the angle of bank can lead to a descending spiral and overstress of the airplane

  20. Division of Attention • If altitude increases, increase the angle of bank with coordinated use of aileron and rudder

  21. Roll Out +10/-10 • Roll wings level when on the entry heading • Lead the roll out using one half the angle of bank

  22. Maintain Altitude +100 • Maintain entry altitude and airspeed throughout the entire maneuver • During rollout release the back pressure or if using trim apply

  23. Maintain Altitude +100 • forward pressure to lower the nose, reduce the power to maintain the entry altitude and airspeed • Trim the airplane

  24. Common Errors • Improper pitch, bank, and power coordination during entry and rollout • Uncoordinated use of the flight controls

  25. Common Errors • Inappropriate control applications • Improper technique in correcting altitude deviations • Loss or orientation

  26. Common Errors • Excessive deviation from desired heading during rollout

  27. (Refer to figure 4.) What is the stall speed of an airplane under a load factor of 2 G's if the unaccelerated stall speed is 60 knots? A. 66 knots. B. 74 knots. C. 84 knots.

  28. (Refer to figure 4.) What is the stall speed of an airplane under a load factor of 2 G's if the unaccelerated stall speed is 60 knots? C. 84 knots.

  29. (Refer to figure 4.) What increase in load factor would take place if the angle of bank were increased from 60° to 80°? A. 3 G's. B. 3.5 G's. C. 4 G's.

  30. (Refer to figure 4.) What increase in load factor would take place if the angle of bank were increased from 60° to 80°? C. 4 G's.

  31. As the angle of bank is increased, the vertical component of lift

  32. A. decreases and the horizontal component of lift increases. B. decreases and the horizontal component of lift remains constant. C. increases and the horizontal component of lift decreases.

  33. As the angle of bank is increased, the vertical component of lift A. decreases and the horizontal component of lift increases.

  34. To increase the rate of turn and at the same time decrease the radius, a pilot should

  35. A. increase the bank and increase airspeed. B. increase the bank and decrease airspeed. C. maintain the bank and decrease airspeed.

  36. To increase the rate of turn and at the same time decrease the radius, a pilot should B. increase the bank and decrease airspeed.

  37. Which is correct with respect to rate and radius of turn for an airplane flown in a coordinated turn at a constant altitude?

  38. A. To maintain a steady rate of turn, the angle of bank must be increased as the airspeed is decreased. B. The faster the true airspeed, the faster the rate and larger the radius of turn regardless of the angle of bank.

  39. C. For a specific angle of bank and airspeed, the rate and radius of turn will not vary.

  40. Which is correct with respect to rate and radius of turn for an airplane flown in a coordinated turn at a constant altitude? C. For a specific angle of bank and airspeed, the rate and radius of turn will not vary.

  41. Why is it necessary to increase back elevator pressure to maintain altitude during a turn? To compensate for the

  42. A. rudder deflection and slight opposite aileron throughout the turn. B. loss of the horizontal component of lift and the increase in centrifugal force. C. loss of the vertical component of lift.

  43. Why is it necessary to increase back elevator pressure to maintain altitude during a turn? To compensate for the C. loss of the vertical component of lift.

  44. To maintain altitude during a turn, the angle of attack must be increased to compensate for the decrease in the A. horizontal component of lift. B. forces opposing the resultant component of drag. C. vertical component of lift.

  45. To maintain altitude during a turn, the angle of attack must be increased to compensate for the decrease in the C. vertical component of lift.

  46. The ratio between the total airload imposed on the wing and the gross weight of an aircraft in flight is known as

  47. A. load factor and has no relation with stall speed. B. aspect load and directly affects stall speed. C. load factor and directly affects stall speed.

  48. The ratio between the total airload imposed on the wing and the gross weight of an aircraft in flight is known as C. load factor and directly affects stall speed.

  49. Load factor is the lift generated by the wings of an aircraft at any given time A. multiplied by the total weight of the aircraft. B. divided by the basic empty weight of the aircraft. C. divided by the total weight of the aircraft.

  50. Load factor is the lift generated by the wings of an aircraft at any given time C. divided by the total weight of the aircraft.