STOPTAKING AVOIDABLERISKS A Behavior Based Accident Prevention Program
COURSE OUTLINE Myths vs. Truths • Module 1: Background • Module 2: Operational Risk Mgmt • Module 3: Employee Training • Module 4: Inspections • Module 5: Accident Prevention • Module 6: Personal Protection Equip • Module 7: AccidentCase Management • Module 8: Motor Vehicle Case Management • The “Ten Commandments” of Safety
ATTITUDE The longer I live, the more I realize the impact “Attitude” has on life. Attitude, to me, is more important than facts. It is more important than the past, than education, than money, than circumstances, than failures, than successes, than what other people think or say or do. It is more important than appearance, giftedness or skill. It will make or break a company, a church, or a home. The remarkable thing is we have a choice everyday regarding the attitude we will embrace. We cannot change our past, we cannot change the fact that people will act in a certain way, we cannot change the inevitable. The only thing we can do is plan on the one string we have, and that is our attitude. Life is 10% of what happens to me and 90% how I react to it…we are in charge of our…ATTITUDE.Charles Swindell
MYTHS vs. TRUTHS Myth – Safety is zero accidents and injuries Truth – Accidents and injury statistics measure the aftermath of unsafe acts Myth – Correcting unsafe conditions will eliminate most injuries Truth – Most injuries result from people’s actions Myth – If you create enough rules, policies and procedures, people won’t get injured Truth – Rules and procedures may encourage safe actions, but are only as effective as the consequence they predict
MYTHS vs. TRUTHS Myth – 100% Compliance = 100% Safety Truth – 100% Compliance only achieves a minimum acceptable standard for safety Myth – Observation audits indicate how safely jobs are being performed Truth – Observation audits only reveal deficiencies in employee knowledge or skill Myth – Declining injury rates mean safety is improving Truth – Declining injury rates mean fewer people have been reported injured (in most cases)
MYTHS vs. TRUTHS Myth – Stopping unsafe acts means safe acts occur more frequently Truth – For safe acts to occur more frequently, they must be actively acknowledged and recognized Myth – Threat of disciplinary action increases safe behavior Truth – Threat of disciplinary action stops unsafe acts temporarily, but fosters resentment and negative attitudes
MYTHS vs. TRUTHS Myth – Properly trained people will work safely Truth – People are well-trained when they have the skills and knowledge to work safely – Training cannot change motivational factors associated with day-to-day tasks Myth – Safety incentive programs reinforce safety behaviors and attitudes Truth – Incentive programs often function as “giveaways” unrelated to increased safety From an 1996 article in Professional Safety Magazine. Published by Am.. Society of Safety Engineers
Module 1: Background • Supervisor Responsibility “Employees who exercise supervisory functions shall, to the extent of their authority, furnish employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm. They shall also comply with safety and health standards applicable to their agency.” • OSHA 29CFR1960.9 • USDOC Safety Manual, Chapter 2, Section 6
Module 1: Background • Employee Responsibility “Each employee shall comply with the standards, rules, regulations and orders issued by the agency and per Executive Order 12196. Each employee shall use safety equipment, personal protective equipment and other devices and shall follow procedures provided or directed by the agency and necessary for their protection.” • OSHA 29CFR1960.9 • USDOC Safety Manual, Chapter 2, Section 7
Module 1: Background • Safety Performance Evaluations for Supervisors - Administrator’s memo dated 12/02/02 - Administrator’s four elements of performance measurements for supervisors Fosters a safe working environment for all employees, by: • Successfully completing approved workplace safety training. • Promoting workplace and home safety awareness. • Conducting and documenting monthly inspections in areas of responsibility (Use forms CD 573 or CD574) • Ensuring that any unsafe conditions in the workplace are addressed in an expedient manner.
Module 2: Operational Risk Management (ORM) • What is ORM Operational Risk Management is a decision making tool used by workers at all levels to increase operational effectiveness by anticipating hazards and reducing the potential for loss, thereby increasing the probability of a successful operation.
Module 2: Operational Risk Management • Terms • Hazard – A condition with the potential to cause personal injury, death or property damage • Risk – An expression of possible loss in terms of severity and probability • Risk Assessment – Process which includes detecting hazards and assessing associated risks
Module 2: Operational Risk Management • ORM Process (A Five Point Shield) Identify Supervise Assess Implement Controls Decide
Module 2: Operational Risk Management • When to Apply ORM • ORM should be applied anytime a new process which has a degree of hazard is going to be introduced into the workplace • When a new employee is hired • As a refresher for all employees The use of ORM will help reduce or eliminate the probability of an accident
Module 2: ORM (STAR Observation and Tracking forms) • Tracking of Observations -Formal Observations should be recorded • For tracking and trending of unsafe conditions or acts • Supports your performance appraisal • Forms are available through your RSM or ECSD-HQ • (Tom Altvater, (301) 713-2870 ext132). • Email: email@example.com
Module 2. ORM (Tracking Observations) • Tracking Observations Monthly - This is a summary report submitted to management (NAO pending) - See example in your hand-out - These can be tracked on Excel or Access - Kept on file by supervisor
Module 3: Employee Training • What Training is Required • A worksite assessment should be conducted to help identify the specific hazards and determine the type of training required • Once training is determined, supervisors should take appropriate measures to ensure employees receive the training in accordance with USDOC and Line Office safety regulations DoC Safety Manual. Chapter 6
Module 3: Employee Training • Attendance Records or Rosters • Attendance Rosters are used to help document the training and give proper credit to those receiving training • Records should be kept for 5 years within each workers history jacket (OSHA requirement) and copies shall be made available to all employees upon request DoC Safety Manual Chapter 6
Module 3: Employee Training • Safety Training for the general workforce - All NOAA employees should review the online safety awareness course (available in 2003) - Individual Advanced Training (job-specific) should be taken at the following web site address: - http://www.keller-itc.com (Contact Tom Altvater for additional information)
Training Topics • Introduction to OSHA • Aids in the Workplace • HAZWOPER • Asbestos Awareness • Hearing Conservation • Confined Spaces • Drug-Free Workplace • Personal Protective Equipment • Blood Borne Pathogens • Ladder Safety • Energy Control (LO/TO) • Material Handling - Construction • Electrical Safety • Ergonomics in the Office • Respiratory Protection • Excavations • Scaffolding - Construction • Fall Protection • First Aid • Forklift Training • Spill Prevention • Hazard Communications • Defensive Driving
Module 4: Inspections • Inspecting Your Work Area • As a supervisor you should periodically inspect your work spaces to ensure employee compliance and identify structural degradation • Inspections allow you to identify unsafe working conditions or practices
Module 4: Inspections • Inspection Checklist • An inspection checklist has been developed to help you identify specific issues (CD-574) • A checklist includes items such as noise, indoor air quality, lighting, ergonomics, etc… • Contact your Regional Safety Manager for guidance to help you maintain compliance and provide a safe working environment
Module 4: Inspections • Inspections conducted by Regional Safety Manager (RSM) • This includes periodic and follow up inspections to include special requests. • Inspections by the Environmental Compliance and Safety Division (ECSD) • Major inspections and special requests.
Module 4: Inspections • Employee Unsafe/ Unhealthful Working Conditions • Management shall ensure that a mechanism which allows employees to report unsafe or unhealthful working conditions without fear of discrimination, restraint, interference, coercion or reprisal, is addressed and posted • USUH forms (CD-351) shall be submitted directly to the Regional Safety Manager
Module 5: Accident Prevention • What is your definition of an “Accident”?
Module 5: Accident Prevention • What is an Accident - an unplanned event - an unplanned incident involving injury or fatality - a series of events culminating in an unplanned and unforeseen event
Module 5: Accident Prevention • How do Accidents occur? - Accidents (with or without injuries) occur when a series of unrelated events coincide at a certain time and space. -This can be from a few events to a series of a dozen or more (Because the coincidence of the series of events is a matter of luck, actual accidents only happen infrequently)
Module 5: Accident Prevention • What are unsafe acts?? - Watch the video “Life is for Living”
Module 5: Accident Prevention • Why do we investigate accidents? - To find out what happened - To identify the cause(s) - Do NOT look for employee fault or blame! TO PREVENT REOCCURENCE
Module 5: Accident Prevention • Focus on system failure, not people - Accidents are usually a culmination of a number of events - Look for system failures that let this event happen - Find out how many events make up a typical accident, review the Fishbone process
Module 5: Accident Prevention • What is a Fishbone Analysis? - It is a visual representation of the individual elements that make up the series of events involving involving the accident/ injury - A process improvement analytical tool used in accident investigations - Useful in determining the path for root-cause by setting severity weights on each element
Module 5: Accident Prevention Contributing Contributing Factors Loss Events ×
Module 5: Accident Prevention • Unsafe Acts - An unsafe act occurs in approx 85%- 95% of all analyzed accidents with injuries - An unsafe act is usually the last of a series of events before the accident occurs (it could occur at any step of the event) - By stopping or eliminating the unsafe act, we can stop the accident from occurring
Module 5: Accident Prevention - Although an accident could occur with the first unsafe act, studies have shown that between 300 to 1000 of the same unsafe acts occur before an injury is sustained - This is mainly due to the other series of events that may not align
Module 5: Accident Prevention • Human Factors (types of unsafe acts) • Negligence • Anger/Temper • Hasty Decisions • Indifference • Distractions
Module 5: Accident Prevention • Human Factors • Curiosity • Inadequate Instructions • Poor Work Habits • Over-Confidence • Lack of Planning
Module 5: Accident Prevention • Reinforcing of SAFE work/ tasks - is as important as stopping unsafe behavior - must be conducted with the safety of the employee in mind at all times - sends a positive message to your workers - allows for employee recognition for safe practices
Module 6: Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Requirements for PPE • Have your work areas evaluated to determine the hazardous exposures • Factor in engineering controls • Implement Administrative controls • Determine the PPE, ensure employees are trained • Oversight/ Check for changes
Module 7: Accident Case Management • Initial response • Secure the scene from existing hazards • Seek medical attention for injured employee • Employees shall be instructed to report all accidents to you immediately (unless medical treatment is required) • Supervisor shall initiate a preliminary investigation and shall secure the area of accident to prevent disruption of scene • Supervisor shall notify senior management if required
Module 7: Accident Case Management • How to investigate accidents • Upon notification of accident, secure the scene for investigators • Collect statements from witnesses • Collect statement from injured employee (if possible, or upon their return from treatment) • Document information on accident forms CD-137 and CA-1. If off-site medical treatment is required, fill out a CA-16, “Authorization of Medical Treatment” and give it to the employee for use at the medical facility
Module 7: Accident Case Management • Accident Report Forms • A CD-137, US Department of Commerce • CA-1/CA-2, US Department of Labor • There are separate sections for both the employee and supervisor to fill out on each form • Contact your RSM for assistance
Module 7: Accident Case Management • Submission of accident reports • The original CD-137 shall be submitted to your Regional Safety Manager (make copies for your files) • Your Original CA-1or CA-2 shall be sent to: CCSI, L.P. 300 E. Royal Lane Irving, Texas 75039 Attn: James Gonzales (800) 743-2231, ext. 394 Email: gonzaJ01@ccsholdings.com - Send copies of all CA forms to your RSM!!
Safety Metrics FY03 (first six months) Number of Incidences
Safety Metrics Mid-term FY 03 Incidents by Line Office
Safety Metrics Nature of InjuriesInjuries by Causes Strain/Repetitive 39% Slips/Trips/Falls 37% Contusions 24% Material Handling 33% Frac/Cuts/Punctures 19% Striking/Struck by 13% MISC (chemtox) 18% Indoor Air Quality 9% Injuries by BodyPartInjuries by Case Type Hands/ Fingers 24% Reportable 40% Trunk/ Back 22% First Aid 31% Legs/ Hips 18% Minor 22% Face/ Eyes/ Head 15% Reportable Lost Time 5% Multiple Injuries/ Misc. 14% Reportable Light Duty 1% Reportable Fatality 1%
Module 8: Motor Vehicle Case Management • Motor Vehicle Accident Reports • For motor vehicle accident, an SF-91 shall be filled out (motor vehicle accident form) and sent to GSA(if vehicle is GSA type)with copies to the ASC Vehicle Manager • If damage occurs to a privately owned-vehicle, a TORT Claim form (SF-95), shall be filled out and submitted to the DOC, Office of General Counsel by the POV owner Contact your ASC Vehicle Manager (WASC – Kris Byrd, (206) 526-6046) or RSM for assistance
The “Ten Commandments” of Safety • Care for your workers as you would care for your family at home. • Know the rules of safety that apply to the work you supervise. • Anticipate the risks that may arise from changes in equipment or procedures. • Encourage employees to discuss with you the hazards of their work. • Follow through with recommendations and corrective actions.