Three angels on motivation • Motivation - a phenomenon or a construct? • Motivation - why do people do what they do? • - how to get people to do as you want? • Motivation - models and theories that give • explanations. slides by Sletten. NTNU
Phenomenon or construct • Motivation as phenomenon • - motivation is a “something” that is inherent in humans • - motivation is generating activities • - motivation is a way of explaining why something is done • Motivation as construct • - motivation is a “tool” to generate activity • - motivation can be constructed according to needs for • this “tool” • - motivation is a way of controlling performance
Motivation as “tool”An example Sievers motivation….has been used to quite a large extent (5) as a substitute for power and coercion which previously were the predominant means of influence. Lawson & A firm understanding of motivation….can help Shen managers get to know their colleagues fully and (118) harness these motivational forces to enhance the effectiveness of individual members and the organization.
Motivation as “phenomenon”An example • Psychoanalysis • - the instinct is the basic energetic psychological entity • - the source of an instinct is bodily processes • - needs are the resultant of the instinct • - the need has to be satisfied by attaining a relevant object
Motivation as an answer to “why” • Three ways of looking at motivation • 1) Some basic assumptions - self-satisfaction • - whipping • - the carrot • 2) The production view - the motivational push • - the motivational pull • 3) The micro and macro view - internal forces • - external forces
Micro and macro models of motivation Micro models - focus is on internal forces that impel the individual to a higher level of motivation Macro models - focus on the organization of which the individual is a member - focus on the organizational processes that are essential to manufacturing of a product or delivery of a service
A definition Motivation is forces within or outside (dispositional/endogenous or situational/exogenous) the person or the group that initiate, direct and sustain action toward a goal or set of goals. (Lawson & Shen)
A micro theory of motivation - Maslow Surplus needs Self actualization Self-esteem Social needs Safety needs Deficiency needs Physiological needs (water, air, food)
A micro theory on motivation - McClelland • Three most important basic needs • - the need for achievement (Ach) • - the need for power (Pow) • - the need for affiliation(Aff) Ach Pow Aff Ach Pow Aff Person I Person II
The achievement need The two sides - the need/lust to achieve - the risk for failure The attribution of cause - the responsibility for success - the responsibility for failure
Micro theories of motivation - cognitive theories Basic: Action is a result of “conscious”choice Action is (normally) not a result of needs or impulses which cannot be/is not consciously experienced by the person
A micro theory of motivation - Vroom Basic: One does something when one expects to master it, and to get out of it what one wants. Expectation a conscious conception of - which consequences the work one does, will have for one’s wish for rewards - the value of the reward for oneself.
A micro theory of motivation - Vroom • The three basic elements • Subjective expectation that the effort will make results • Instrumental consideration that work effort will result in rewards • Valence estimation that the rewards is of value for oneself
A micro theory of motivation - Vroom Expectation Performance Reward Effort Skills Ability Work performance Instrumentality Motivation Roles Valence
A macro model of motivation - Hertzberg Basic: What gives rise to work satisfaction (motivator factors) are different from what gives rise to work dissatisfaction (hygiene factors)
A macro model of motivation - Herzberg Work dissatisfaction Work satisfaction 0 Hygiene factors Motivator factors Salary Responsibility Relationships Recognition Management style Opportunities Work environment Development Extrinsic to the work Intrinsic to the work
A macro model of motivation Management by objectives • Basic: • Goals are immediate regulators/determinators of • task performance. • Goal setting is an effective motivational tool • because it activates both cognitive and emotional • processes in the person or group.
A macro model of motivation Management by objectives • Some findings • Increased difficulty of goal is translated into higher performance. • Goals that are specific and difficult yield higher levels of • performance than do vague and/or nonquantitative goals. • Public commitment to a goal is stronger/more effective than • private commitment.
A macro model of motivation Total Quality (TQ) Basic: The fundamental of TQ programs is to deliver products and services that are of a quality that meets or exceeds customer’s/client’s expectations.
A macro model of motivation Total Quality (TQ) • The organizational motivation is based on and focuses on • customer and client relation. • The organizational motivational focus has motivational • impact on all member of that organization
A macro model of motivation Total Quality (TQ) In TQ the focus is shifted from the employee/organization/ manager as primary initiator of action, to the customer/client. The customer/client thus is first component in the motivational chain.
A macro model of motivation The TQ management philosophy • focus on the production system rather than the individual • or team • use data-based problem solving • keep in constant contact with customer/client • pursue relentlessly continuous improvements • have TQ principles adopted by organizational members • internalize the TQ philosophy and principles in the organization
Some other models of motivation - “Making the wish come through” The Pygmalion effectA persons performance is enhanced because another (important for him/her) person expects her/him to perform better. The Galatea effectA persons performance is raised because his/her self-expectations for the performance is raised.
Some other models of motivation - Perceived self-efficacy (PSE) Basic: People’s judgements of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performance.
Some other models of motivation - Perceived self-efficacy (PSE) • To develop a high PSE • Enactiv attainment sense of mastery based on earlier • earlier successful task completion • Modelling working with a mentor • Verbal persuasion coaching with direction oriented • verbal support • Arousal interpretation of physical signs • as increased respiration/hearthbeat
Performance management systems (PMS) • Basic: • PMS direct and motivate employees to maximize • the effort they exert on behalf of the organization. • Two vital components of PMS are: • performance appraisal and feedback processes which • directs employee’s attention toward the most important • tasks and behaviours • performance incentives which motivates employees to • perform at the level of their maximum potential.
Performance management systems (PMS) • Performance appraisal system • a formal, structured system for • - measuring • - evaluating • - influencing • an employee’s work-related attributes, behaviours • and outcomes. • Focus is on discovering • - how productive the employee is • - if the employee can perform as or more effectively • in the future.
Performance management systems (PMS) Information from PMS can be used for evaluationcomparisons to persons, marks developmentemployee improvement systemsassessment of organizational needs maintenanceand goal attainment documentationmaintenance of records for performance documentation
Performance management systems (PMS) • The performance appraisal system • can function adequately when performance is aligned • and integrated with the strategic business objectives • which makes it possible to • - monitor performance • - give feedback
Performance management systems (PMS) - Appraisal • Performance appraisal presupposes performance criteria • on task performanceand on general performance • trait-based criteria personal characteristics • (loyalty, responsibility, etc) • behavioural criteria how work is performed • (friendliness, cleanliness, etc) • outcome-based what is performed • criteria (quantity, etc)
Performance management systems (PMS)360-degree appraisals • Who is participating • Supervisors the person’s immediate boss • Oneself the person being appraised • Peers the colleagues/team-members • of the person • Subordinates the employees the person has • work responsibility for • Customers the receiver of the product of • the person’s performance
Performance management systems (PMS)Feedback Basic: Performance management is an ongoing process punctuated by - formal appraisals - formal feedback. In feedback sessions supervisor and subordinate meet to - exchange information on the work done - evaluate performance - express ideas for improvement - set new work goals
Performance management systems (PMS)Feedback • Sources of conflict associated with performance feedback: • Goal conflicts between various stakeholders in the • work process being appraised • - between the organizations evaluative and developmental goals • - the employee’s various goals • Perceptual focus • - the perspective of the supervisor on the subordinate • - the perspective of the subordinate on the organization
Performance management systems (PMS)Performance reinforcement • Positive reinforcement is to use positive rewards to increase • the occurrence of desired performance. • Some rules: • Do not reward everyone the same way • No response is also a way of reinforcing • People must know what they must do to be rewarded • People must be told what they do wrong • Do not punish in front of others • Be fair.