RDG 567 & RDG 568 (East Lyme Cohort)
Please let’s start with adding to your inventory: • Name?What is your position?How many years have you been an educator? What district/school do you work at? • Contact Information (cell, email etc.)
Some Specific Functions of Assessment • Screening • Given at beginning of the year to quickly identify children who may need additional help • Diagnostic • An in-depth follow-up to screening • Results inform instruction • Progress monitoring • Short measures given throughout the year to make sure all children are developing at an adequate rate • Evaluation • Given at the end of the year to make sure that children made adequate progress
Curricular Conflict In a study by Johnston, Allington and Afflerbach (1985) two thirds of specialist teachers were unable to identify the reading instructional materials used in the regular classroom of their students. And fewer than one in ten of classroom teachers could name the materials their students were using in the intervention setting. Turn and Talk: What is Your Core? What areYour Interventions (Materials/Approaches)
English Journal 80 Years Ago Obstacles to Reading To arouse a taste for good reading is admittedly half of the province of the teacher of English, but that the present time furnishes particular obstacles to general and earnest reading among young people, no one can deny. Our chief recreations are automobile-riding and moving-pictures. With the building of more garages than homes in the United States during the past year, reading has inevitably lost some tricks in the game. As for the movies, whatever they may be as an educational force (and strong claims have often been set forth) frequent attendance upon them fails to increase a child’s power to read with understanding—and consequently with pleasure. Ida E. Melson. “Current Reading as a Stimulus.”EJ 13.6 (1924): 389–96.
All grown-ups were children first. (But few remember it). If you tell grown-ups, "I saw a beautiful red brick house, with geraniums at the windows and doves on the roof...," they won't be able to imagine such a house. You have to tell them, "I saw a house worth a hundred thousand francs." Then they exclaim, "What a pretty house!" Grown-ups like numbers. When you tell them about a new friend, they never ask questions about what really matters. They never ask: "What does his voice sound like?" "What games does he like best?" "Does he collect butterflies?". They ask: "How old is he?" "How many brothers does he have?" "How much does he weigh?" "How much money does his father make?" Only then do they think they know him.
“Teacher expertise is the most important factor in improving students' learning.” (Darling-Hammond & Mc Laughlin, 1999)
Important Dimensions of • Teacher Expertise • What do you think are the key dimensions of teacher expertise? • What Are Your Strengths? • What Areas are You Looking to Improve?
Teacher Expertise is Central (Johnston, 2010) • Teacher expertise is the most important factor in improving children’s learning (Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin, 1999). • Teachers who give more detailed descriptions of students’ literacy development refer fewer children for LD evaluation (Broikou, 1992) • Teachers favoring whole class instruction refer more children for LD evaluations than teachers favoring a range of grouping structures (Drame, 2002). • Teachers using small group instruction are generally more effective than those who do not (Taylor et al., 2002)
Struggling Readers… Catch up ONLY when they make more than a year’s progress in a year’s time.
Assessment Rating Scale TOWL TEWL PPVT GORT TWS TOWRE WRMT 1-No knowledge 2- Heard of it 3-Seen it/See results 4- Used it 5-Used Frequently (10+)
In partnerships-complete an open sort Then partnerships share your sorts with one another
The Golden Rule of Assessment • The best designed assessment with the most reliable and valid measures administered by the best trained examiner won’t change a child’s reading trajectory . . . unless someone in the child’s life does something different. Effective School Interventions: Strategies for Enhancing Academic Achievement and Social Competence
Myths about Reading Assessment • A valid and reliable test is equally valid and reliable for all examinees. • All measures of the same reading component yield similar results for the same examinee. • All examiners using the same tests will obtain similar results and come to similar diagnostic conclusions for the same examinee.
Discussion Web Which area are you better equipped to informally diagnosis students’ areas of difficulty? Reading Writing
Cognitive-linguistic Variables Phonological processing Rapid naming Orthographic processing Oral language Literacy Skills Print awareness Alphabet knowledge Single word reading Contextual reading Reading comprehension Written language 10 Key Reading Components Rathvon, N.
How has “What Good Readers Do”been incorporated into DRA2 or IRI Text Reading?What areas of reading ability are inside this assessment? • Assesses: • Reading Engagement • Oral Reading Accuracy and Fluency • Comprehension (Predictions, Retellings and Summaries, Connections, Inferences, Reflections) • Determines student’s Independent level and provides focus areas for instruction. • Look in the handout at the Good Readers Chart. Put a checkmark next to every strategy on which you have provided mini-lessons.
A New Way of Analyzing Data • What is the data REALLY telling us? • Form Hypotheses • Classroom Connections
We Need to ANALYZE Data! DRIP, DRIP, DRIP!
Say Something! What patterns emerge? What might be working? What might be wrong? What children may still be of concern? What instructional issues are arising? What areas would the staff want to revisit?
Rule of Thumb The finer the grain size at which we monitor a process, like reading or writing, the greater the likelihood that we will end up teaching and testing bits and pieces rather than global processes like comprehension and composition. P. David Pearson, UC Berkeley
A School-wide Approach The Reading Achievement Gap
Let’s Do a Case Study Background: Ted Nugent is in first grade. He has received Early Literacy since October and he has worked with the classroom teacher in small group 3x a week. He also was screened further by the LAC with the following data. What noticings hypothesis can you start to make?
In a study of reading development and strategy use (Ross, 2004) teachers in some schools were trained in running records and in other schools they were not. Student reading development was monitored over time. In schools were teachers were trained, they found significant improvement in reading achievement. What Really Matters in Response to Intervention, Allington, 2009
“When we examine the most successful interventions available in the research, we find that virtually every study used either one-to-one tutorial or very small group (1 to 3 students)” Allington 2009. Vaughn and colleagues (2002) noted that very small group (n=3) instruction led by an expert teacher had the largest impact on improvement of reading achievement.
Essential Components of Reading: “The Big Five” Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension
A New Way of Analyzing Data • Core Program Self-Analysis for SRBI • Effectively teach ALL children • Monitor student progress to inform instruction • Intervene early • Use a multi-tiered model of service delivery • Use a collaborative, problem-solving method to make instructional decisions
Principles for RTI design drawn from the research. • Match texts to readers. • Dramatically expand reading activity. • Use very small groups or tutoring. • Coordinate intervention with classroom curriculum. • Expert teacher provides the instruction. • Focus on meaning and meta-cognition.
Increasing the Validity of Reading Assessments • Begin with measures targeting domains directly related to the referral problem. • Supplement norm-referenced measures with criterion-referenced measures to ensure adequate coverage and increase instructionally relevant information. • Know the psychometric strengths and limitations of each measure you use. Rathvon, N.
Intervention Survey Tier 1 Classroom Interventions Tier 2 In or Out Tier 3- Intense Models
Rank Where Do I Begin? Why? • List of strategies: • Decoding • Risk Taking • Oral Retelling • Self Monitoring • Fluency • Comprehension
Models of Reading • Bottom-up processing (decoding) • Top-down processing • Interactive approach
The cat is in the grass. The cat is in the lady’s lap. • Oh no, the cat is in the tree.
Peter led Bridget into the waiting room. • He realized that she was extremely nervous, so he gently suggested that she sit down. • Bridget ignored him and began to pace frantically. • The other patients watched her warily and several also began pacing. • As a scream rang out from the inner office, Peter angrily forced Bridget to sit down. • Bridget moved closer to Peter, who leaned down and tenderly scratched her ears.
Bottom-up Processing Reader builds meaning from the smallest units of meaning to achieve comprehension. Example letters letter clusters words phrases sentences longer text meaning = comprehension
Top-down Processing Reader generates meaning by employing background knowledge, expectations, assumptions, and questions, and reads to confirm these expectations. Example Pre-reading activities (i.e. activating schema, previewing, and predicting) + background knowledge (cultural, linguistic, syntactic, and historical) = comprehension Aebersold, J. & Field, M. L., (1997). From reader to reading teacher: Issues and strategies for second language classrooms. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Interactive Approach Reader uses both bottom-up and top-down strategies simultaneously or alternately to comprehend the text. Example Reader uses top-down strategies until he/she encounters an unfamiliar word, then employs decoding skills to achieve comprehension. Aebersold, J. & Field, M. L., (1997). From reader to reading teacher: Issues and strategies for second language classrooms. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Interactive Approach Knowledge base + bottom-up strategies + top-down strategies = comprehension