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Project Management

Project Management

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Project Management

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  1. Project Management

  2. Over view • What is ……. • project management • Project team, • Delivery, deliverables • Stages of Project, • Project definition, project plan, • Manage delivery, • Identification and Risk management

  3. What is a Project • A one time job undertaken to create a unique product or service • Creates a unique product, service or result • Done for a purpose • Performed by a team of people provided for the project duration • Has interrelated activities • A successful project is one which achieves or exceeds the expectation of your stake holders

  4. Projects versus Operations Projects • Performed by people • Constrained by limited resources • Planned, executed and controlled • Have specific life cycle • Unique • Eg: construction of house, residential complex, designing new software Operations • Performed by people • Constrained by limited resources • Planned, executed and controlled • Ongoing • Repetitive • Eg: Manufacturing of cars, medicines, producing multiple copies of software

  5. Why Project Management? • To have Better control of financial, physical, and human resources • Accountability • Learn from mistakes of others! • Improved customer relations • More Managed Outcomes • Lower costs • Higher quality and increased reliability • Higher profit margins • Improved productivity • Better internal coordination • Higher worker morale

  6. Why Projects Fail • Poor communications • Poor planning • Weak business case • Lack of management direction & involvement • Incomplete specifications • Mismanagement of expectations

  7. Why Project Management? • Structured approach • Projects are completed and end results are achieved • Reaching the end point predictably—to a given cost – within planned time • Structure- control- sufficient attention to detail and continuously driving action

  8. Triple Constraints Theory Every project is constrained in different ways by its • Scope goals: What is the project trying to accomplish? • Time goals: How long should it take to complete? • Cost goals: What should it cost? It is the project manager’s duty to balance these three often competing goals

  9. Brainstorming on project management….

  10. Stake holders and their role

  11. Project manager • Clear understanding –why and what • Plan the project- to understand how long will it take and how much will it cost • Manage the project- to ensure that as the project progresses, it achieves the defined objectives within the allotted time and cost • Complete the project properly – to make sure everything produced by the project is of the quality expected and works as desired

  12. Project’s customer • The person or company who wants it to be implemented • Customer can be – • Yourself • Your boss at work • A customer who buys products and services • Anyone you work for • Customer is important for providing resources-money/people and for making decisions

  13. Project team • Depending on the size of project • You can be manager and member • for larger projects more HR required for completion of project • Managing people in project team • They work under you as well as line manager • Still you have to manage, motivate and direct • Make sure they are spending time for you and not for their routine work

  14. Delivery and deliverables • Getting things done you set out to do • Delivery means completing the project to the expected time and cost with the desired outcome • Deliverables are what is delivered by a project • Deliverables are defined at the start of the project • Eg: Inspection report • Marriage • New house

  15. Dimensions of a project • Scope • Quality • Time • Cost • Risk • All above dimensions interdependent – change any one – impact will be on other variables

  16. Sample……. • Eg: decorating the rooms in your house: front and dining room: three coats of paint: cost of paint 5000/-; 4 days with normal brush: spray machine can work faster—may paint uncovered objects- apply above dimensions- • Scope—paint the rooms • Quality – three coatings – paint brand • Time- 4 days • Cost- 5000++ • Risk- low risk ( painting by brush) • High risk - sprayer

  17. Exercise 1Define the 5 dimensions • Processing of 300000 Bill Mail service articles (weight 25 grams each) . All Pre-mailing activities to be done by You. Time 3 day. To be delivered within district. • May claim damages if not delivered within 3 days.

  18. Stages of a project—life cycle • Defining the project • Planning • Managing and execution • Delivery-deliverables • Closing down

  19. STEP 1 • DEFINE THE WHY AND WHAT

  20. CREATING PROJECT DEFINITION • Ask the question- • Why do you need a project? • What will your project deliver? • Success in projects depends on understanding precisely , completely and unambiguously what you are trying to achieve

  21. Scope of the project • Defining what is the outcome of the project • Objects can be tangible or intangible • Done by asking a series of structured questions • Why do you want to do this project? • What will you have at the end of the project that you don’t have now? • Will you deliver anything else?

  22. Is anything explicitly excluded from the project? • Are there any gaps or overlaps with other projects- or changes to the boundaries of the project? • What assumptions you are making? • Are there any significant problems you are aware of that you must overcome? • Has the customer or situation , set any specific conditions on the way you do this project?

  23. Exercise 2 • Each team will be assigned with a project • Discuss the project with your team members • Ask for the information if any required. • Get the clear picture of the project. • Fill in the project definition template . • Present after 15 minutes. END OF THE UNIT

  24. STEP 2 CREATE YOUR PROJECT PLAN

  25. Project plan • Brainstorm a task list • Convert the task list to a skeleton plan • Estimate times –add dependencies-and delays • Who will do what • Build the plan into a schedule • Work out costs • Add in milestones and contingency • Review and amend- can you, should you? • Review plan with project customer.

  26. Brainstorm a task list • Involve team members- experts-not more than five??? • Use flip charts- post-it note • Group the common tasks • Logically arrange in to tasks and sub tasks • Now ask: • Are these really all the tasks you need to meet your objective? • Can you allocate and manage? If not breakdown into smaller pieces until you don’t see as an activity

  27. Brainstorm a task list • Is everything really necessary to meet the objective or are some extra? • Are all the tasks different or are any really the same? • Number the tasks in order • Arrange as per the hierarchy of tasks –leading to a WBS • Task –1 • Subtask- 1.1 • Sub-sub task-1.1.1

  28. Task list • Eg: Setting up a computer lab • Tasks • Select contractor • Write tender • Document need • Prepare office • Install furniture • Install PC • Design office layout • Send tender to possible suppliers • Review responses

  29. Task list - continued • Select contractor • Fit carpets • Flooring • New lights • New sockets • Fit electrics • Choose new furniture • Order furniture • Remove old furniture • Fit new furniture

  30. Task list - continued • Choose new PC • Select software • Order PC and software • Install software on PC • Install configured PC

  31. Exercise 3 • Write down the task list for the project allotted to you. • You have 45 minutes. • At the completion present it to the class. • Trainer to summarize

  32. Work Breakdown Structure ( WBS) • Converting task into plan –WBS • Provides skeleton to your plan • Arrange tasks as per groups • Rename tasks to have clarity • Add new tasks if required • Give a number taking into account hierarchy of tasks • Identify subtasks if any and number accordingly

  33. WBS

  34. Check and review the Project definition • Are these really all the tasks you need to meet your objective? • Is there anything left out? • Whether above WBS can be managed? • Is every thing necessary? • Can you see addition of new tasks –1.3,2.4, Prepare the WBS for your project

  35. Estimate times – dependencies and delays • Converting WBS to schedule of activities • Estimate the time of subtasks and add to get time required for a task • Natural delays (waiting for supply of furniture)

  36. Time and dependencies

  37. Exercise 5 Estimate time for your project

  38. Project team • Allocate the tasks in the plan • Requirement of skills • Man power of each category required • Tasks with zero effort (waiting time) • Bottle necks • Compromises • Quality conditions

  39. Project Team

  40. Exercise 6 Build your team

  41. Build plan to a schedule • Start and end date for each task • Start and end date for overall project • End date = start date + effort • Start date depends on • Predecessor tasks and external dependencies • When people have completed previous work • Availability of team members • Exclude holidays • Leave of team members • Overlaps

  42. Exercise 7

  43. Costing • Costs associated with running the project • Team members • Team manager • Buying deliverables— • Material • Consultation • Taxes • Contingencies • Miscellaneous

  44. Milestones and contingencies • Select key events • Risk estimation • Top down estimate: project manager’s intuition or gut feeling • Bottom –up estimate: looking at every individual task in the plan and identifying how much risk in each task. More accurate but time consuming Exercise 8 What are the mile stones and risks and contingencies in my project

  45. To improve on time line • Can you remove any of the tasks? (2.2.1) • Are estimates reasonable or can they be reduced? • Can you remove any dependency? (4.6>3.5) • Can you overlap any tasks? (4.6---3.5) • Can you use any of the resources more efficiently? Keep everyone busy by moving tasks around. • Can you add in more resource? • Finally draw the project plan