The Nature and Purposes of Research in the Creative Media Industries By Haris Malik
Primary Research • Primary research is information that you have collected yourself for research purposes. An example of this can be going out with a survey and talking to people to collect data, you could walk around the local town or even college to collect data, location can be important depending on what it's for. If the survey was for what are the shows that college students find most interesting to watch; then the best place to ask people would be within college, however if the questions were about where's the most popular tv show watched on BBC one the best place to ask would be the town, as you get a variety of age groups, genders, and demographics as it will give you better results. • A second example for primary research can be interviewing people, if you were wanting to get information for a TV show, it may be good to interview people who work on the show like the actors, director, technicians or producers. • Another example can be a questionnaire, they can be sent to people's houses to be answered, a good example of this can be the Census which is sent to people's homes every ten years by the government, which asks people to answer certain question such as residence, work, ethnicity, number people living in homes, and so on. The Census is then uploaded onto the internet for other people to use as secondary research.
Advantage Of Using Primary Research • A benefit from using primary research is that it can be more reliable than using research you find somewhere on the internet as it could have been made up or tampered with. • Also you can get the exact information you need for your research, as you get to ask the questions specific to the answers you're wanting. • Another advantage can be that if you're asking people what tv show they watch via a popular social website you may be able to get many responses easily for free. For example HBO tweeting if you're enjoying game of thrones retweet this tweet or favorite if you're not, or uploading a questionnaire onto Facebook for people to fill in, sometimes offering a prize draw for people who answer them, this may not cost a lot of money and can be very effective.
Disadvantages Of Using Primary Research • A disadvantage of using primary research can be that it may take your research department time to do the research, and depending on what the answers you're looking for it may take a very long time. For example if you're wanting to get results of how many people in the UK watch BBC three, it may take time to get all the results back. • Also depending on the method the research is done; it may cost a lot to carry out the research, for example if you're asking everyone in the UK or even in just one city; who watches Top Gear? It would cost a lot to print out the questionnaires and get them delivered to the homes, or if you're having to recruit people to go out and ask people in the street. • Another disadvantage of using primary research is that you may not always get the answers you are looking for, which is where you may have to read a book or go on the internet and just use the secondary research.
Secondary Research • Secondary research is where you use research that has already been found/exists by someone else. One of the most popular example of secondary research would be using the internet, this can be either using someone else's questionnaire results that they've uploaded (for example census). Or it can be a forum where people are talking about something; maybe what they think about the last series released of Arrow, they could use the information to see what people enjoyed and what people didn't enjoy; which can then help the CW network improve on it to ensure everyone continues to love the show. • A second example of secondary research could be finding information from books, there may be certain information you want to find out for example • A third example of secondary research can be looking at ratings, they may upload the most watched tv shows this week onto the internet. Bloomberg upload the top 40 watched tvprogrammes watched each week, this shows the episode, channel and rating for each show. This can be used by television networking companies to see who's most popular and then why, also if it's a company that provides you to watch tv shows such as Netflix, Love film, and Prime; they may want to look at what's most popular and then try to give that to it's users as it may attract more users.
Advantage Of Using Secondary Research • An advantage of using secondary research is that the data has already been collected therefore it will save you time from going out and collecting the data for yourself. • A second advantage of using secondary research is that you would be saving money by not having to print out questionnaires and send them everywhere, or not have to hire people to carry out surveys. There maybe costs of buying books, however most information would be free on the internet. • A third advantage could be that the secondary research is used to help support the data you may get from the primary research, this can help ensure the data is correct. For example of you found that game of thrones was the most watched show on a Sunday, then maybe checking secondary research could help back up your answer.
Disadvantage Of Using Secondary Research • A disadvantage of using secondary research can be that it may be that the only data you can find may be a little out of date, for example the census, therefore making it not the best source to use as research. • Another disadvantage of using secondary research can be that the sources that you may find may not be the most honest or exact, especially on the internet as anyone can go onto websites such as Wikipedia and change information. Therefore it can't always be 100% trust worthy. • A third disadvantage of using secondary research maybe that you may not always be able to find the exact answers you're looking for; for your own research, such as you may want to find out where in the UK had the largest number audience watching factor, however the results may only show the number for the UK overall.
Qualitative Research • Qualitative research is research that you get which is to do with people's opinions. • An example of this can be game reviews, there are many game reviews that you can find on YouTube, by many people such as gamers like Syndicate, PewDiePie, KSI and so on, or gaming companies such as IGN or Machinima. • Another example can be movie reviews, you can also find these in youtube, or even news papers and magazines, forum sites, and other websites like IMDb. • A third example of qualitative research can be peoples attitudes to media products, meaning that everyone has their own opinions on things different media things such as Netflix. Some people will love Netflix however some may not, everyone has their own opinion on the shows, the price, the UI and the number of people it let's use it and one account, by taking in these reviews they can help improve the product so that more customers feel satisfied.
Advantages of Qualitative Research • An advantage of qualitative research is that by using people's opinions on your product such as Netflix you would be able to help maybe improve the product to help bring in more customers. • A second advantage would be that by watching reviews on things like games you get to see what gamers enjoy about your game and what went wrong, this helps ensure future games continue to be successful.
Disadvantages of Qualitative Research • A disadvantage of qualitative research is that not everyone's opinion is going to be the same, therefore you have to make sure you don't always take things too hard when someone may not like your tv show as there may be people who do. • Another disadvantage is that some people may not be honest on the Internet, there are people who enjoy to 'troll' therefore if someone is saying that something isn't good about a media product then you have to consider it may not actually be true.
Quantitative Research • Quantitative research Is research will give you numerical data which you can then put into a graph or a chart. • For example you may want to find out; what is the most popular movie currently in the cinemas, and by collecting research you could put the results in a chart to see which has the highest number of tickets sold. • Another example of quantitative research can be the ratings a television programme gets, this data can be used to determine what's most popular and then can be used. Businesses like Netflix may want to get the popular shows to attract customers. • A third example of this can be hits on a website, for example a video on YouTube may get a lot of hits, companies can use this by maybe advertising on these videos as they know they'll get a large number of people seeing it.
Advantage of Quantitative Research • An advantage of quantitative research is that by using figures on what the most popular tv show is, you can get an idea of what the people like. Therefore if the most popular tv show was the Big Bang theory you would know people enjoy watching comedies which could be useful if you were planning on making one. • A second advantage can be that by looking at what shows are popular, you would know the advertising during the breaks may get s large number of views, therefore businesses may want to advertise during those times to make sure they get enough recognition to help make sales and profit for the business.
Disadvantage of Quantitative Research • A disadvantage of quantitative research is that it has a limitation on what data you get, for example you may be able to take in account how many people liked 'The Viper vs the Mountain' In Game of Thrones, however HBO wouldn't know why if they only used quantitative. • A second disadvantage of quantitative research is may not be beneficial for any of your research you're doing, for example the answer HBO may be looking for is something like 'why does Game of thrones have a higher number of viewers than True Blood?' Which would need opinions to answer it where quantitative research cannot provide that.
Data Gathering Agencies • Data gathering agencies are here to research into certain things and then provide you with the data, these are non profitable companies. An example of a data gathering agency is the National Readership Survey, they research into news papers and magazines, seeing the number of people who buy these magazines and news papers, they cover 250 different magazines and newspapers in the UK. • 'The National Readership Survey was established in 1956 and today it provides the authoritative and valued audience research in use for print and digital advertising trading in Britain'. - NRS website • By recording how many magazines are sold and read, how many people visit the websites of the news paper and magazine companies, and how many read the articles on there, and how much the readership has increased on the newspaper or magazine; it helps businesses in the media industry. This is because for example if there was a new business wanting to start selling magazines, they could compare popular magazine companies In that genre for example Kerrang!, NME, Rocksound and Q, you get to compare are see which are most popular, which can help you get an idea of why, for example is the paper they use, is their layout, do they contain lots of picture, do they give posters?. This can help you get your magazine popular.
Data Gathering Agencies • Another way they can be useful is that companies may want to find the most appropriate and popular magazine and newspaper to advertise in and by using the NRS, it can help them choose the best ones. • Another example of a data gathering agency is the Broadcasters' Audience Research Board, BARB record what tv shows people are watching to help people see what's the most popular and by which age group and gender. To do is there are 11'000 participant in 5000 houses In the UK that have have BARB boxes set up, these boxes record what people are watching and they have to select who in the house is watching it. This helps all TV channel companies such as BBC, ITV, SKY, Channel 4, MTV, Disney and so on see what are the most popular shows and by who. Therefore if they wanted to make a new show, they'd get an idea of what the people like to watch. However this can also help companies such as Netflix, LoveFilm, and Amazon Prime Instant Video see what shows and movies they should be able to provide to their customers, for example they would want to give shows that are popular such as the walking dead, supernatural, breaking bad and game of thrones because they it'll help attract potential new customers to use their service which would make them more profit.
Purpose of Audience Research • Audience profiling is where you find out the profile of the audience, this may include things such as looking at age,need ducal tonal qualifications, their work experience, financial background, their field of work, their interests and religious background, buying pattern, lifestyle, leisure activities and so on. This helps companies get an idea of what their customers would be into so that they know how to attract them to buy the products or use their services. • Another part of audience research is looking into demographics, which is looking into statistical data that relates to the population and the participating groups within in. An example of demographics can be looking at people's age, sex, education level, income levels, marital status, occupation, religion, birth rate in an area and earth rate,beverage family sizes in an area,bans average age to get married in an area. A way of finding out this information is looking at the Census, which is a survey that everyone has to fill out, which takes places every ten years. • Geodemographics is different to demographics because it is where you study a group of people in a geographical area according to economical and social factors (socioeconomic criteria). • Demographics profiles are used to help businesses find out specific things such as where might the most appropriate locations be to air a new televisions show, where should you advertise certain things, and where may be the best place to open stores and sell certain products.
Purpose of Audience Research • Psychographics is where you study the lifestyle of your audience, this would include their interests therefore if a computer company was selling computers, And they knew their consumers may be inserting in gaming then they may want to provide the consumers with a free game as it can help attract customers. • By using both demographics and psychographic profiles in conjunction it will help you find the best place to advertise certain products, for example if you were producing a new show about exercising and dieting, you may know which people would be best to show it to and therefore target those people.
Purpose of Market Research • Market research differs from audience research because it is more about finding out what the consumer wants from the product or service than finding about the consumer. • An organisation would want know how their competitors are being successful for example the Emmerdale Staff my might want to find out why Eastenders is so popular, both shows compete as soap operas on British television and they'd be competing to win the audiences over. They'd look into story lines, acting, actors (maybe bringing in a famous actor could help attract viewers) and look at techniques they use for advertising the show. The same would go for shows such as The Walking Dead competing with Game of thrones, AMC would want to look into why HBO are so successful with their show and then try to find a way to help improve their show. By doing market research it helps give the business ideas of how their product should be and it helps reduce risks of their plans failing.
Purpose of Production Research • Production research would differ from market research because production research is looking into the the production of the product of service that the business is going to be making. The product research looks into things such as the financials of creating the product so how much will it cost them which is important for setting a budget. It'll give them an idea of how much their incomes and outcomes. It'll also help the business see how much they should price, promote and distribute their product. Whereas the market research is about researching into the market you're going to operating in, therefore you look at other products in the same field so a new television and movie streaming company would look at netflix, love film and Amazon Prime, looking into how the operate their services and why customers pay as much as they do for the services.