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Acid-Base Balance

Acid-Base Balance

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Acid-Base Balance

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  1. Acid-Base Balance Lectures on respiratory physiology

  2. Some definitions • An acid is a molecule that releases hydrogen ions in solution • A base is a molecule that can accept a hydrogen ion • A buffer is a substance that can reversibly bind hydrogen ions

  3. Titration curve for the bicarbonate buffer system

  4. Law of Mass Action CA CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO3- AT EQUILIBRIUM, [H+] x [HCO3-] K = [H2CO3] [H+] x [HCO3-] = SOLUBILITY x PCO2

  5. [H+] x [HCO3-] K = 0.03 x PCO2 WHICH, AFTER TAKING LOGS, BECOMES: [HCO3-] pH = pK + Log( ) 0.03 x PCO2 - THE HENDERSON - HASSELBALCH EQUATION

  6. Derivation of normal pH

  7. Davenport Diagram

  8. [HCO3-] pH = 6.1 + Log( ) 1.2 PCO2 = 40 24 PLASMA [HCO3-], meq/l NORMAL 7.40 pH

  9. 100 80 PCO2: 60 40 30 PLASMA [HCO3-], meq/l 20 10 pH

  10. [HCO3-] pH = pK + Log( ) 0.03 x PCO2 80 BUFFER LINE 40 20 N PLASMA [HCO3-], meq/l pH

  11. ACID - BASE DISTURBANCES: * RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS * RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS * METABOLIC ACIDOSIS * METABOLIC ALKALOSIS

  12. RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS: H+ + HCO3- CO2 + H2O 80 BUFFER LINE 40 20 N PLASMA [HCO3-], meq/l pH

  13. RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS: H+ + HCO3- CO2 + H2O 80 BUFFER LINE 40 20 N PLASMA [HCO3-], meq/l pH

  14. RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS: H+ + HCO3- CO2 + H2O 80 BUFFER LINE 40 20 N PLASMA [HCO3-], meq/l pH

  15. RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS: H+ + HCO3- CO2 + H2O 80 BUFFER LINE 40 20 N PLASMA [HCO3-], meq/l pH

  16. RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS: H+ + HCO3- CO2 + H2O 80 BUFFER LINE 40 20 N PLASMA [HCO3-], meq/l pH

  17. METABOLIC ACIDOSIS: H+ + HCO3- CO2 + H2O 80 BUFFER LINE 40 20 N PLASMA [HCO3-], meq/l pH

  18. METABOLIC ACIDOSIS: H+ + HCO3- CO2 + H2O 80 BUFFER LINE 40 20 N PLASMA [HCO3-], meq/l pH

  19. METABOLIC ALKALOSIS H+ + HCO3- CO2 + H2O 80 BUFFER LINE 40 20 PLASMA [HCO3-], meq/l pH

  20. METABOLIC ALKALOSIS H+ + HCO3- CO2 + H2O 80 BUFFER LINE 40 20 PLASMA [HCO3-], meq/l pH

  21. COMPENSATED RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS COMPENSATED METABOLIC ALKALOSIS 80 BUFFER LINE 40 20 PLASMA [HCO3-], meq/l pH

  22. Oxygen Delivery to Tissues

  23. VENTILATION LUNGS DIFFUSION CAPILLARIES HEART AND CIRCULATION PERFUSION CAPILLARIES DIFFUSION TISSUE THE OXYGEN TRANSPORT SYSTEM

  24. Fick equation for diffusion through a tissue sheet

  25. Distribution of PO2 between capillaries

  26. Critical PO2 for mitochondrial respiration

  27. Classification of tissue hypoxia: * Hypoxic hypoxia * Anemic hypoxia * Circulatory hypoxia * Histotoxic hypoxia