1 / 34

Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) for Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Growers

Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) for Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Growers. New England Extension Food Safety Partnership. Project funded by USDA CSREES - Agency Number-005111109723, Project Number 2000-05389. Micro Talk. GAP: Micro 101.

Télécharger la présentation

Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) for Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Growers

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)for Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Growers New England Extension Food Safety Partnership Project funded by USDA CSREES - Agency Number-005111109723, Project Number 2000-05389 Micro Talk

  2. GAP: Micro 101

  3. Foodborne Illness: The Symptoms • Nausea • Vomiting • Diarrhea • Headache • Fever

  4. Foodborne Illness: People at Greatest Risk • Infants & Children • Elderly • People with weakened immune systems

  5. Foodborne Illness (2010): Dangers • Cases: 48 million per year • Hospital: 128,000 per year • Deaths: 3,000 per year • Cost: Billions per year

  6. Foodborne illness: How you get sick from food 5 Steps Illness Ingestion Mishandling Contamination Food

  7. Foodborne Illness: Most likely sources • Ready to Eat Foods • Potentially Hazardous Foods

  8. Food Safety Hazards: 3 Types of Contamination Physical Chemical Biological

  9. Physical Food Safety Hazards • Wood • Plastic • Metal • Glass • Hay, grass • Tools • Gloves, bandages, pens and other personal items

  10. Chemical Food Safety Hazards • Cleaning chemicals, sanitizers • Lubricants, other plant chemicals • Pesticides • Heavy metals, such as lead • Allergens, such as milk protein • Toxins, such as patulin

  11. Biological Food Safety Hazards • Parasites • Viruses • Bacteria

  12. Biological Hazards Parasites • Cyclospora cayetanensis • Cryptosporidium parvum • Giardia lamblia

  13. Biological Contamination • Viruses • Hepatitis A • Norwalk virus • Rotavirus

  14. Sources of Biological Contamination • Animals (manure and manure , animal living spaces, carcasses) • People (food handlers, pickers, packers, and consumers) • Environment (contaminated water, air, plants)

  15. Bacteria from AnimalsSalmonella - millions of cases of FBI each year • Source:Intestinal tract of animals and humans • Foods: Raw and undercooked eggs • Undercooked poultry • Fruits and vegetables

  16. Bacteria from AnimalsE.coli O157-H7- Can produce deadly toxins in you • Source: Intestinal tract of animals (cattle) and humans • Foods: Raw and undercooked ground beef • Produce • Apple cider

  17. Bacteria from People Shigella • Source: Human hands • Foods: Produce • Salads • Milk and dairy products

  18. Bacteria from the EnvironmentListeria monocytogenes • Source: Soil, water, animals • Foods: Raw vegetables • Unpasteurized milk and cheese • Raw and undercooked meat

  19. To Grow, Bacteria Need: Neutral pH Alkaline Acid 0 1.0 2.03.0 6.0 6.4 7.08.0 8.5 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 Distilled Water Egg White Commercial Mayonnaise Apples Chicken Milk Corn Soda Crackers Beef, Veal Pork Carrots, Pumpkins Sweet Potatoes Limes Pickles Vinegar

  20. To Grow, Bacteria Need: Moisture Water Activity Minimum needed for bacteria to grow 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.67 0.70.75 0.80.850.9 0.92 0.95 0.98 1.0 Meats Poultry Dry Egg Noodles Crackers Jams & Jellies Distilled Water Potentially Hazardous Foods Flours Candy

  21. To Grow, Bacteria Need: The right Temperature 140 º F “Danger Zone” 40 ºF

  22. The effects of time and temperature on bacterial growth: 95ºF 50ºF Number of Salmonella per gram 44ºF 42ºF

  23. The effects of temperature on bacterial growth

  24. Not All Bacteria Created Equal • Different temperature • Different pH • Different water controls • Different survival conditions • Different adaptations • Different growth on different commodities • Different…….

  25. Survival of Bacteria • Impacted by temperature, pH, sunlight exposure, source of contamination, other microflora and organism of interest E.coli, Salmonella spp., Listera, Shigella • Studies show different survivals of pathogens depending on commodity, surface soil or water, and viability/survival vs. growth Salmonella spp. E. coli

  26. Some survival values reported: • Water– 15-30 days, 109 days; May be greater in ground water since cooler, protected form sun, less biological activity • Soil– 20 and 161-231 days • Crops – 7-15 days, 30 days, 49 days, 63-231 days, 3-5 months, 84-203 days depending on crop, contamination route etc. Listeria monocytogenes. Cote,C and Quessy, S. 2005. J. Fd. Sci. 68(5):900-905) Steele,M and Odumer,J. 2004. J. Fd. Protection. 67(12):2839-2849. Kilonzo-Nthenge,A, Chen,F-C, and Godwin,S.L. 2006. J. Fd. Protection. 69(2):330-334. Islan,M, Morgan,J., Doyle,M.P., Phatak,S.C., Millner,P. and Jiang,X. 2004. Foodborne Illness and Disease. 1(1):27-35 Scott, L., McGee, P., Sheridan, B., Earley, B. and Leonard, N. 2006. J. Fd. Protection 69(1):6-11. Brandl, M.T. 2006. Annu. Rev. Phytopanthol. 44:367-392. Aruscavage, D., Lee, K., Miller, S., LeJeune, J.T. 2006. J. Fd. Sci. 71(8):R89-R99.

  27. Studies have shown S. enterica and E.coli at planting time can persist for prolonged time – including until harvest. • Interactions of enteric pathogens with plant microflora – may enhance growth or survival. • Certain plant disease, such as soft rot, has been shown to have higher incidences of pathogens. Not all plant disease equal. • Damage – attachment greater then intact fruit or vegetables. Very complicated !!!

  28. Persistance of E.Coli 0157:H7 Product Survival on product Survival in soil * Parsley 177 days 217 days Carrots 175 days 196 days Onions 84 days 168 days Lettuce 77 days 154 days * 10 7 and 10 5 cells added to compost and water, respectively Islam, M, MP Doyle, S.C. Phatack, P. Millner, X.Jiang. 2004. Journal of Food Protection. 67(7):1365-1370 Doyle, M. 2007. E. coli 0157:H7 and Fresh Porduce. Presented 2007 NEFDOA conference. Warwick RI.

  29. New Research • Prolonged survival of Campylobacter species in bovine manure compost • reached or exceeded 55oC • detected after ~10 months in compost Inglis, et al. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2010 76(4);1110-1119 - canada

  30. Contamination With Microbial Pathogens: Where Can It Occur? • In fields or orchards • During harvesting and transport • During processing or packing • In distribution and marketing • In restaurants and food service facilities • In the home FARM to FORK From Rutgers University- NJ Ag Station

  31. Sources of Pathogens on Produce: On the Farm • Contaminated irrigation water • Handling by infected workers • Poor personal hygiene • Fresh or uncomposted manure/fecal material • Wild and domestic animals • Cross-contamination • No time/temperature control when needed Adapted from Rutgers University- NJ Ag Station

  32. From Rutgers University- NJ Ag Station

  33. Food Safety for the Producer:Good Agricultural Practices– Key Food Safety Principles • Water and Water Quality • Manure and Biosolids Management • Worker Health and Hygiene • Sanitation in field, packing area and PYO operations Facilities • Temperature Control • Traceback

  34. Food Safety Partnership • New England Cooperative Extension Food Safety Specialists From: • University of Connecticut • University of Maine • University of Massachusetts • University of New Hampshire • University of Rhode Island • University of Vermont • Other Representatives: • State Agriculture Divisions/Departments • USDA Agencies (Farm Service Agency, ASCS, NRCS) • Farm Bureau • Growers Associations • Cooperative Extension Agricultural Specialists/Agents

More Related