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Assessing Students for Instruction

Assessing Students for Instruction

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Assessing Students for Instruction

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  1. Assessing Students for Instruction Mercer ch. 3

  2. Steps for Individualized Programming • 1. Assess to identify target skill or content • 2. Determine factors likely to facilitate learning • 3. Plan instruction • 4. Begin daily data-managed instruction

  3. Assess to identify target skill or content • Determine what to teach the student • To identify target skill you must first assess • Determine scope and sequence of the skill (identify terminal behavior and prerequisite skills) • Determine long/short term objectives

  4. Determine factors likely to facilitate learning • Focus on HOW to teach the student • Look at environmental variable that influence achievement • Systematic observations – look at ABC’s • Formal assessment • Criterion tests • Rating scales • Interviews • Alternative assessments

  5. Plan instruction • Look at what to teach in step 1 • Combine with how to teach in step 2 • Constant monitoring of student progress

  6. Begin daily data-managed instruction • Is the student making adequate progress through the teach – test – teach cycle • If not consider 4 options • Repeat same instructions • Modify instructional procedures • Introduce a new teaching strategy • Change to an earlier task

  7. Stages of Learning • Acquisition • Proficiency • Maintenance • Generalization • Adaption

  8. Data Collection • Recording systems • Permanent product - outcomes of behavior • Observational recording systems • event recording - counts • interval recording - counts • time sampling - counts • duration - temporal • latency - temporal

  9. Permanent Product • Recording tangible items or environmental effects that result from a behavior; for example written academic work • 80% Correct • Spelling Test • Tangible • Environmental • Behavior • Academic

  10. Event recording • Recording a tally or frequency count of behavior as it occurs within an observation period; an observational recording procedure • Assignments • Day Due Completed • 1 5 // • 2 6 /// • 3 6 //// • 17 9

  11. Interval recording • An observational recording system in which an observation period is divided into a number of short intervals. The observer counts the number of intervals when the behavior occurs Number of intervals attending Total number of intervals + - + + - - - + + + + -

  12. Time sampling • An observational recording system in which an observation period is divided into equal intervals; the target behavior is observed at the end of each interval • 40 minutes Number of intervals on task _________________ Total number of intervals + - + - + + - + + -

  13. Duration • Recording the amount of time between the initiation of a response and its conclusion; an observational recording procedure Observation time: 11:00 – 11:30 Duration Min. Start Stop 11:04 11:08 4 11:11 11:16 5 11:21 11:23 2 11:26 11:30 4

  14. Latency • Recording the amount of time between the presentation of the cue and the initiation of a response. • Latency • Signal Begin (Minutes) • 11:02 11:05 3 • 11:03 11:06 3 • 11:01 11:02 1 • 11:04 11:07 3 • 10:59 11:01 2 • 12

  15. Simple Line Graph • Set of boundaries • axes • x-axis - abscissa, horizontal • y-axis - ordinate, vertical • Axes are drawn in a ratio of 2:3 • If y = 2, then x = 3

  16. Abscissa • The x-axis serves as the boundary of the graph. • Shows how frequently data were collected during the period represented on the graph. • The right boundary of the graph ends at the last session. • Horizontal line – bottom boundary

  17. Ordinate • Vertical line serves as the left-hand boundary of the graph. • The label identifies the target behavior and kind of data that is being reported.

  18. Simple line graph

  19. Alternative Grading “I see many of you anticipated a pop quiz today.”

  20. Concerns in Grading • Assigned grades have different meaning to teachers, school counselors, parents, and students • Teachers’ concerns about standards of performance for students with accommodations • Classroom teachers’ concerned that inclusion of students with disabilities in their classroom might result in decreased standards for all students

  21. Concerns Cont. • In the 1990s research in secondary schools found 60% students with disabilities were graded using the same criteria as their peers without disabilities • Most students with disabilities are passing their courses, but receiving much lower grades than peers without disabilities • High percentage of students with LD who received poor grades over a period of time, drop out

  22. Grading Options • Letter/Number Grades • Most common method • Does not accurately convey the feedback for areas of improvement and how much a student has learned • Progress Checklists • Contain criterion related goals assessing students at a starting point • Provides feedback to parents & students on progress • Can be time consuming • Contracts • Provide feedback on what goals are accomplished • Does not provide feedback when unsuccessful in reaching goals • Work Samples • Accurately displays progress and product but may not show precise growth in process • By itself, will not give a student direction for improvement – need input from teacher

  23. Grading Options Cont. • CBAs • Directly assess mechanical skills (rote facts, rules, sequences), tests basic skills not concepts • Effectively show progress by using graphs • Mastery Levels • Divides content into subcomponents with pretests to create a minimum performance standard and posttests to examine mastery • Multiple Grading • All grades are averaged together • Doesn’t give information on how to improve • Portfolios • Contains works in progress • Focus on meaningful, personal learning goals • Rubrics • Provide criteria describing student performance at various levels of proficiency

  24. Timing Extended time Alter time of day Administer test over several sessions and days Allow frequent breaks Presentation Audiocassette Large print Repeated directions Sign language assistance Braille Magnification Setting Small-group administration Hospital administration Study carrel Separate room Homebound Response Dictate to scribe Sign language assistance Braille writer Word processor Common Assessment Accommodations