Emergency ResponseAmerican Red Cross Instructor: Joel Bass MS ATC 1995 USDOT First Responder Curriculum
Cardiac Arrest • What is cardiac arrest? • When the heart stops beating or beats too irregularly or too weakly to circulate blood effectively. • What are some causes of cardiac arrest? • Drowning • Suffocation • Electrocution • Respiratory arrest • Poisoning • Allergic reactions • Stroke • A victim in cardiac arrest is unconscious, not breathing, and without a pulse.
CPRCardiopulmonary Resuscitation • CPR is only effective for short periods of time • The effectiveness decreases the longer you are performing CPR. • The majority of victims in cardiac arrest need early defibrillation to have the best chance for survival. • CPR extends the time in which defibrillation will be successful. • Victims of cardiac arrest do not often survive, even in the best situations. • Video(Adult CPR)
When to Stop CPR • Another trained rescuer takes over • You are too exhausted to continue • Victim’s heart starts beating • Scene becomes unsafe • A defibrillator is available with trained user present • You are presented with valid DNR order • Advanced medical personnel order you to discontinue.
Skill Practice: Adult CPR • Bring your skill sheets to the practice area • Find a partner • Use manikins • Practice CPR, beginning with the initial assessment.
Cardiac Emergencies in Infants and Children • Children and infants often suffer a respiratory emergency that results in a cardiac emergency. • Ways to prevent cardiac emergencies in children • Prevent injuries leading to cardiac emergencies • Proper medical care • Recognize early signs of respiratory emergency • Agitation • Drowsiness • Change in skin color • Increased difficulty breathing • Increased heart and breathing rates • Video(Child CPR)
Skill Practice: Child CPR • Bring your skill sheets to the practice area • Find a partner • Use manikins • Practice CPR, beginning with the initial assessment.
Infant CPR • Video (Infant CPR) • Infant Two-Rescuer CPR • One rescuer places his or her thumbs next to each other on top of the infant’s sternum 2 finger’s width below nipple line and then wraps hands around the infant’s body.
Skill Practice: Infant CPR • Bring your skill sheets to the practice area • Find a partner • Use manikins • Practice CPR, beginning with the initial assessment.
Two-Rescuer Adult CPR • Video (Two-Rescuer CPR) • Compression to breathing remains 15 to 2 • First rescuer does an initial assessment and the second rescuer gets into position to give compressions • When changing positions, stay on the same side • When CPR is in progress by one rescuer and a second arrives, that rescuer should ask whether advanced medical personnel have been summoned.
Skill Practice: Two-Rescuer Adult CPR • Bring your skill sheets to the practice area • Find a partner • Use manikins • Practice CPR, beginning with the initial assessment.
Automated External Defibrillators: Improving Survival or Cardiac Arrest • Video (AED Defibrillators) • Operating an AED • Confirm cardiac arrest • Turn on device • Attach device to victim • Analyze rhythm • Deliver shock, if indicated
Precautions for Using an AED • Do not clean chest with alcohol pads. • Stand clear of victim when analyzing and defibrillating • Do not analyze or defibrillate in moving vehicle. • Do not defibrillate in water • Do not defibrillate on metal surface • Do not defibrillate victim less that 8 years old • Do not defibrillate victim less than 55 pounds • Remove any nitroglycerin patches from victim before defibrillation
Skill Practice: Using an AED • Bring your skill sheets to the practice area • Find a partner • Use manikins and an AED • Practice using an AED, beginning with the initial assessment.