Global Immigration Trends and IssuesKeynote AddressCIC-LINC Administrators’ Meeting by Dr. Usha George Dean, Faculty of Community Services, Ryerson University, Toronto. March 7, 2007 Eaton Centre, Marriott Hotel, Toronto
Features of Globalization • Mutually reinforcing processes of globalization and regionalization • Key Role of Global cities • Multinational companies control of employment, national exports, output, and technology investment • Increased mobility of capital and skilled labour • Multilateral, regional, and worldwide systems of governance and regulation • Technology and the resultant speed and reach of cultural and social networks • Reconstitution of new transnational political economy through global migrations • Asylum seekers and refugees are coming from the poor southern countries
Globalization and International Migration • Globalization has greatly facilitated international migration • International migration is noted in the conceptualization of globalization
Global Trends in International Population Movements • Increasing Number of International Migrants • Global Movement of Refugees • Decreasing Number of Asylum Applications • Feminization of Migration
Increasing Number of International Migrants • Migrants total 2.9 percent of the world population (IOM, 2003) “1 out of every 35 persons is an international migrant” (IOM, 2003 p. 375) World’s foreign-born population has doubled between 1960 & 2000
Global Movement of Refugees • The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reports that during the first quarter of 2004, the refugee population was “remarkably stable” • By the end of 2004, the number of refugees globally totaled 9.2 million, a number which has decreased slightly since the beginning of the same year Source: UNHCR, 2004
AsylumApplications The number of asylum requests filed worldwide in 2004 was 676, 000 compared with 2003’s total of 830,300 Source: UNHCR, 2005
Nations recording and receiving the highest number of new requests for asylum in 2004 Source: UNHCR, 2005
Feminization of Migration • In 2000, approximately 49 percent of all international migrants were women (IOM, 2005) • Women are increasingly migrating as independent heads of households instead of dependents
Migration Trends in North America- USA. • The U. S. is the world’s foremost receiving country with approximately 850,000 legal permanent entries and 1,535,000 entries with temporary visas each year (IOM, 2003) • The largest migratory movement on earth is that of emigration from Mexico to the U. S. Between 300,000 and 400,000 Mexicans enter the U. S. annually.
Migration Trends in North America- Canada • Canada has received over 200,000 new permanent residents almost every year since 1990 • There has been a quick and large increase in its proportion of foreign-born residents in recent years
Migration Trends in Latin America -Mexico and Central and South America • Migration to Canada and the U. S. • Intra-Central America migration • Migration within the Andean region • Migration flows in the Southern Cone of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay • Guerilla warfare promoting refugee movements return migration, and internal migration flows within Brazil
Migration Trends in Europe • During the past four decades the EU has been host to a large number of immigrants - In 2005, immigrants constituted 8.8 per cent of the total population of Europe (International Migration, 2006) • Migration flows move into other countries within the region • The types of migration flows and connections with other parts of the world have diversified • Strong in-migration countries in the region include the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Russia; strong out-migration countries are Belarus, Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, and Ukraine; and, those witnessing a moderate level of migration are Lithuania and Slovakia
Inflows of Foreign Nationals-Europe2003-2004 Source: IMO, 2006
Migration Trends in Europe • The intensity of migration flows can be characterized as those countries with : strong inflow and weak outflow strong inflow and outflow weak inflow and strong outflow, and weak inflow and outflow • Few countries, most notably Russia, have large numbers of displaced persons (Okólski, 2000 ) • Most European nations have begun to curb immigration rates through the reinforcement of stricter immigration controls
Is immigration a remedy for declining and aging populations? A review of the research related to Immigration and Canadian demographics reports that while immigration, of about 200,000 per year can be the solution to effectively prevent population decline, at current levels of fertility, it has a minor impact on ageing, which will continue regardless of level of immigration (Beaujot, 1998).
Migration Policy Trends in Traditional Countries of Immigration • Immigration as a source of increasing the labour pool and growth in population • Selection of immigrant stream to suit the country’s needs • Temporary-to-permanent entry routes have become increasingly prominent • Eurpean Immigration to the TCI’s has declined while immigration from Asia has increased significantly
Transnationalism • A new perspective • A grassroots occurrence with deep historical roots • Is not a characteristic of all immigrants • Transnational identities can take a variety of forms • Transnationalism has macro-social consequences • Transnational activism varies in extent and forms with the contexts of exit in the sending country and reception in the receiving country • Global cities are major sites for transnational encounters (Portes, 2003; Castles 2003).
Consequences of Immigration • Small negative effect of immigration on unemployment—higher social cost for immigrants than that for the population at large • Increased demand for goods and services produced in the host country creates favourable demand for labour • Immigrants serve as a flexible labour pool providing geographical and functional mobility • Immigration has assisted some countries in dealing with the problems created by an ageing population
Issues in Settlement • Meaningful employment • Information and access to programs and services • Housing • Language training • Community connections
References • Beaujot, R. (1998). Immigration and Canadian Demographics: State of the Research. CIC Canada. Retrieved 27th September 2006 from http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/research/papers/demographics.html • Castles, S. (2003b). Transnational communities: A new form of social relations under conditions of globalization? In J. G. Reitz (Ed.), Host societies and the reception of immigrants, (pp. 429-445). San Diego: University of California, Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. • International Migration 2006. (Wall chart). United Nations. Retrieved on March 6, 2007 from http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/2006Migration_Chart/2006IttMig_chart.htm • International Migration Outlook. (2006).Retrieved on March 6, 2007 from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/44/33/36859673.pdf
International Organization for Migration (IOM). (2003). World migration 2003. Retrieved on January 22, 2007, from http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/cache/bypass/pid/8?entryId=4992 • International Organization for Migration (IOM). (2005). World migration 2005. Retrieved on January 22, 2007, from http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/cache/bypass/pid/8?entryId=932&srcId=933&grpsrc=yes&publicationEntriesGroup_filter=World%20Migration%20Reports • Okólski, M. (2000). Recent trends and major issues in international migration: Central and East European perspectives. International Social Science Journal, 52, 330-341. • Portes, A. (2003). Conclusion: Theoretical convergencies and empirical evidence in the study of immigrant transnationalism. International Migration Review, 37, 874-892.
Tapinos, G.P. & Delaunay, D. (2000). Can one really talk of the globalization migration flows? In (unknown eds.), Globalization, Migration and Development, 35-58. Paris: OECD. • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). (2004). Refugee Trends: 1 January-31 March 2004. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Population Data Unit, Population and Geographic Data Section. • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), (2005). Asylum levels and trends in Industrialized countries, 2004. Retrieved 5th October 2006 from http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.pdf?tbl=STATISTICS&id=422439144&page=statistics