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Personalized Medicine: The promise of the $1000 genome ? PowerPoint Presentation
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Personalized Medicine: The promise of the $1000 genome ?

Personalized Medicine: The promise of the $1000 genome ?

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Personalized Medicine: The promise of the $1000 genome ?

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  1. Personalized Medicine: The promise of the $1000 genome? Jeantine E. Lunshof Ethics Consultant PGP Maastricht University, Dept. of Social Medicine VU University Amsterdam, Dept. of Molecular Cell Physiology HUGO – Human Genome Organisation Mutation Detection Training Course 2008 24 – 28 October 2008, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

  2. But, please note, nothing new here … Good medicine is personalized (regardless of genomes and $$)

  3. The Personal Genome • Latest news: where does it stand • Origins: where does it come from • Reasons: why doing it • Questions: anything you like to discuss

  4. Latest news:

  5. For updates see: for data see:

  6. Origins: where does it come from

  7. #1 origins of PGP: technology • PGP stems from technology development: It has its origins in the CEGS-Harvard proposal 2003 with focus on the development and application of polonysequencing

  8. Polonies? "Polonies are discrete clonal amplifications of a single DNA molecule, grown on a solid-phase surface. This approach greatly improves the signal-to-noise ratio. Polonies can be generated using several techniques that include solid-phase PCR in polyacrylamide gels, bridge PCR, rolling-circle amplification, BEAMing (beads, emulsions, amplification and magnetics)-based cloning on beads and massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) to generate clonal bead arrays.“ Fan JB, Chee, MS, Gunderson, KL (2006) Highly parallel genomic assays. Nature Rev. Genet. 7:632-44. • For the basics, see:Shendure, Porreca, Reppas, Lin, McCutcheon, Rosenbaum, Wang, Zhang, Mitra, Church (2005) Science 309:1728.A • For the instrument, see:

  9. A Sequencing Array of Polony Beads Shendure, Porreca, Reppas, Lin, McCutcheon, Rosenbaum, Wang, Zhang, Mitra, Church (2005) Science 309:1728.A

  10. #2 origins of PGP: ELSI PGP stems from questions that were raised in the ELSI section of the (2003) CEGS Harvard proposal: “How may the gathering of increasing amounts of genetic information be made compatible with ethical and legal requirements of privacy?” “Are current informed consent practices sufficient to give human subjects adequate understanding of the potential that their identity may be discernable in large genetic datasets obtained from them?”

  11. This resulted in … A sequencing and technology development project hand in hand with an ELSI demonstration project

  12. The Personal Genome Project “The main scientific goal of this study is to explore ways to connect human genotype and phenotype information, i.e. human genome sequence, medical records, and non-medical physical traits, so that such data can be used for hypothesis-generating exercises and computational efforts worldwide.” Personal Genome Project – Consent Form – vs. February 2007

  13. In other words: the PGP collects & generates comprehensive identifying genetic information

  14. Consent revisited - closer to the truth? Given the increasing availability and accessibility of data, and identifiability of donors we suggest a different consent, requiring that: “ …you should seriously consider the scenario where all of your data and identity would be accessible by a large number of people.”

  15. consent The core concept of “open” consent: Volunteers accept the hypothetical possibility of complete and public disclosure of comprehensive identifying genetic information. Volunteers accept the risks of learning about, and of revealing any medical condition they might have. • Volunteers have the right to opt out at any point. But: data that have been released into the public domain cannot be retrieved

  16. Reasons: why doing it From the $1000 genome to personalized medicine? • YES, it is a necessary condition • BUT it is not sufficient

  17. Many questions call for answers on our way to the < $500 genome we identify and address problems in technology and in the ELSI realm, for example: • Dealing with raw data: quality & feed-back • Interpretation & communication of research outcomes • To whom it may concern: participants & relatives

  18. acknowledgement The PGP-team wishes to thank you for your critical questions. Ongoing feedback has sharpened our ideas and helped shape PGP. /