Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, and Use • The creation, shipping, and use of radioactive material is highly regulated (IAEA, NRC, DOT, etc.). • High activity sources can only be produced by sophisticated methods (e.g. reactors & accelerators). • High activity sources can only be obtained after special licensing to ensure their safe use and their security. • Similar regulations exist in other countries were radioactive materialis produced or used.
Density sources: • typically 1.5 Ci to 2 Ci. • 120 Lbs • Large Densometer: • 55 mCi • 68 to 275 Lbs • Neutron sources: • 4 to 19 Ci • 130 to 200 Lbs Shielding Requirements Limit Portability • For sources: the higher the activity, the more shielding you require to transport the source.
Portable Radiography Sources • “Top strength” industrial radiography sources can burn fingers and cause radiation sickness within a few minutes. • Effects drop off dramatically with distance. Outside of 3 meters, acute effects rare even after hours of exposure. • Sources are constructed to meet rigorous testing standards. A typical source is encapsulated in two (2) TIG welded Stainless Steel Capsules. • Source material itself is often metal (Cobalt or Iridium) or embedded on non-soluble ceramics or “microspheres” to prevent inhalation of radioactive material if the source encapsulation is breached.
High Activity Source Transportation Containers that ship high activity sources are meant to withstand very punishing accident conditions.
High activity radioactive material is highly regulated. Industrial sources are very robust and made not to leak. When dangerous quantities are shipped, the material is put in a container capable of withstanding harsh accident conditions. Very high activity industrial/medical sources are facility based and difficult to remove. Conclusion:Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, and Use
How Might High Activity Radioactive Material beMisused? • Expose people to an external source of radiation. • Disperse radioactive material using conventional means. • Explosively Disperse radioactive material [a “Dirty Bomb”]. • Create a Nuclear Weapon (this requires special nuclear material)
Potential consequences of dispersal of radioactive material into... Facility ventilation systems • Inhalation (internal) dose hazard • Interruption of ‘normal life’ • Expensive cleanup costs Water supplies • High dilution • Individually significant doses would not likely result. • The general environment (“dirty bombs”, crop dusters, fire, sprayer, etc..) • Low likelihood of acute radiological effects • May require population shelter or evacuation • May be difficult to clean outdoor areas
WHAT IS A ‘DIRTY BOMB’? • A “Dirty Bomb” is conventional explosives combined with radioactive material with the intention of spreading the radioactive material over a relatively large area. • This is NOT a nuclear explosion, the radioactive material does not enhance the explosion. • Very few deaths would be expected from acute radiological exposure (the greatest hazard would likely be from the effects of the conventional explosives). • The contamination will hamper emergency response efforts and can delay hospital treatment. • Widespread contamination can deny the use of facilities and areas and have a significant psychological impact on the exposed population.
External Exposures • Focused radiation or localized contamination can result in radiation effect to specific areas on the body • Whole body exposure can result from: • A passing radioactive cloud or smoke • A large, distant point source • Exposure from contamination deposited on the ground
Internal Exposures • Once radioactive material is deposited in the body, it can expose the person from within. • The magnitude of the dose will depend on many factors: • How much material was deposited, • how it got into the body (ingestion, inhalation, absorption, or injection), • chemical form of the radioactive material, • the radiation it produces, • how quickly it decays, and • how quickly the body eliminates the material.
The Human Factor • Concerns about radiation and contamination often produce an exaggerated emotional response. • Can’t detect it with our 5 senses • Associated with cancer • Reminiscent of “cold war” fears • Science difficult to understand • Out of our control • Possible results may be… • Unexposed people saturating the medical community • Health and economic effects from long term anxiety or depression in the community
Conclusion:Misuse of Radioactive Material • High activity sources can cause health effects, but only to those in close proximity. • Acute health effects from distributed radioactive material unlikely without prolonged, high-concentration exposure. • Radiation or contamination will hinder response efforts. • Denial of facilities and areas will have a major cost effect • Public anxiety and its effects may be the primary lasting health effect.
Radioactive Material Dangerous Goods Transportation Traininghttp://halworld.halnet.com/hse/hse_hes/hse_hes_resafety/hse_hes_resafety_radtransport.asp Objectives: • Properly classify a package containing radioactive material • Properly label and mark a radioactive materials package for shipment • Properly prepare shipping documentation • Demonstrate your ability to complete a radioactive materials shipment
Definitions • A1 and A2 values • Cargo Aircraft • Competent Authority • Consignee • Excepted Package • Radioactive Material • Special Form
Package Activity Limits • Excepted Packages • Materials (Limited Quantity) • Instruments and Articles - Item Limits • Instruments and Articles - Package Limits • Instrument and manufactured articles – clock, electronic tube, or apparatus having radioactive material as a component part
Requirements for Packages • General Requirements • Easily and safely handled and transported • Strong lifting attachments • Free from protruding features • Surface will not retain water • Withstand effects of acceleration and vibration • Physically and chemically compatible components • Temperature range from -40o C to + 55oC
Type A Package • Meet General Package requirements • Smallest outside dimension >100 mm • Capability of installing a tamper proof seal • Forces on tie-down attachment must not damage package during transport • Temperature range -40oC to + 70oC • No loss or dispersal of material or a 20% increase in radiation level after water spray, free drop, stacking, and penetration tests.
Empty Packages • Previously contained radioactive material • Well maintained and securely closed • No loose contamination • Any labels which may have been displayed are no longer visible
Shipping Labels • Transport Index < 0.05 • Surface < 0.5 mr/hr
Shipping Labels • Transport Index <1.0 • Surface <50 mr/hr
Shipping Labels • Transport Index <10 • Surface <200 mr/hr
TRANSPORT INDEX TRANSPORT INDEX ONE METER 3.3 FEET 39 INCHES TRANSPORT INDEX: • The radiation level in mr/hr at one meter from the package surface (gamma and neutron).
Cs137 1.5 Ci. THE SUM OF THE TRANSPORTATION INDEXES CANNOT EXCEED 50 FOR A SINGLE SHIPMENT Am241Be 18.5 Ci and .5 Ci. Maximum Transport Index For Total Number of Packages On One Vehicle
Overpack • An enclosure that is used by a single consignor to provide protection or convenience in handling of a package or to consolidate two or more packages. • Packages of radioactive material may be combined in an overpack for transport. • Only the shipper is permitted to take a direct measurement of the radiation level to determine the TI.
Special Form • Indispersible solid or sealed capsule which meets the following: • Capsule can only be opened by destroying it • Have one dimension not less than 5 mm • Design received unilateral approval • Demonstration of compliance with the standards can be done by performance, reference to previous tests, or calculations
Special Form • Subjected to impact test, percussion test, leaching test, volumetric leakage test, bending test, and heat test • Would not break or shatter under the impact, percussion or bending tests • Would not melt or disperse in the heat test • Would not leak
Package Markings • Readily visible and legible • “Type A” must be stamped or printed as required • Proper shipping name • UN Number • Excepted packages only require UN Number • Shipper and Consignee with addresses • Gross mass if exceeding 50 kg
Marking of Overpacks • Proper shipping name • UN number • All labels except for the “Type A” package label that are required on the inner package must be reproduced on the outside of the overpack
Package Markings • Markings required by other international regulations are permitted • In addition to the languages of the State of Origin, English should be used. • Reportable Quantity (RQ) marked on package for shipments entering or leaving the US
Additional Package Markings IMDG • Requires a shippers mark be placed on the package or overpack – initials of the company (ex: HES) at least 2 inches in height • Tracking number (ex: the RMA number) or other locally generated serial number • City of destination • Number of packages (ex: 1 of 1, 1 of 2)
Package Labeling • Identification of primary hazard • Able to withstand open weather exposure • Two labels which conform to the appropriate category on two opposite sides of the package or on the outside of all four sides of the freight container • Labels must not be folded • Labels must not overlap
Package Labeling • Cargo Aircraft Only label for goods transported into or out of US • Category Labels must have • Contents – symbol of radionuclide – mixtures as space permits • Activity in Bq can have Ci in parentheses • Transport Index for category II and III
Placarding • Four placards front, back and both sides • Required for Category III in US • May be required for all Category labels outside US – check local rules • Enlarged category labels may be used in place of placards
Shippers Declaration for Dangerous Goods - SDDG • Two copies completed and signed • Proper shipping name • Class - Radioactive Material class 7 • UN number • Number of Packages • Subsidiary risk • Indication of Passenger or Cargo-Only • Indication of Radioactive or Non-Radioactive • Special handling information • Indication if an overpack has been used • Full name and address of shipper and consignee • Airport or City of departure and destination
SDDG • The words Radioactive Material if not contained in the shipping name • Name or symbol of Radionuclide(s) • Activity in Bq, may have Ci in parentheses • Description of physical and chemical or a notation that it is Special Form • Competent Authority Certificate mark • Category Label I, II, or III • For II and III Transport Index and package dimensions • Emergency contact information • SIGNATURE certifying shipment
Air Waybill • Must contain a statement to indicate that dangerous goods are described on accompanying DGD • When applicable, indicate Cargo Aircraft Only or CAO • For Excepted Packages – in the Nature and Quantity of Goods box list proper shipping name with UN number
Additional Documentation • Competent Authority Certificates • Sealed Source Certificates • Current Leak Test Certificates • Emergency Response Guide • Locally required transportation documents
Proper Shipping Names • Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Limited Quantity of Material, UN2910 • ‘Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Instruments’ or ‘Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Articles’, both UN2911 • Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Articles Manufactured From ‘Natural Uranium’, ‘Depleted Uranium’, or ‘Natural Thorium’ all UN2909 • Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Empty Packaging, UN2908
Proper Shipping Names • Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Non-Special Form, Non Fissile, UN2915 • Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile, UN3332 • “RQ” indicated on the declaration when required • RQ, Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile, UN3332