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  1. Welcome Your safety committee may be ineffective unless members understand their role and carry out their individual responsibilities. The safety committee can be a "profit center" activity: As a fact-gathering, problem-solving team of motivated members, the safety committee has the potential to help save lives and money. In this workshop, we'll discuss some basic principles and best practices that will help your safety committee succeed. Think of it as your safety committee's "boot camp." Our big goal for today: Gain a greater understanding of OAR 437, Division 1, Rule 765 requirements and best practices in effective safety committee operations. • What we’ll be discussing today… • Safety committee role and purpose • Vision statements, mission statements, and strategies • Formation and Membership of the Safety Committee • Duties and Functions of the Safety Committee • Hazard Assessment and Control duties of the Safety Committee • Evaluation of the Employer's Accountability System • Increasing Employee Involvement • Training the Safety Committee • Identifying Workplace Hazards • Investigating Workplace Accidents • Writing Effective Recommendations • Assisting the Employer in Controlling Hazards Getting around Introductions Ground Rules Form Groups Please Note: This material or any other material used to inform employers of compliance requirements of Oregon OSHA standards through simplification of the regulations should not be considered a substitute for any provisions of the Oregon Safe Employment Act or for any standards issued by Oregon OSHA.

  2. Required Safety Committee Training Topics What are the minimum requirements for safety committee training? • (7) Safety and Health Training and Instruction. • (a) The following items shall be discussed with all safety committee members: • (A) Safety committee purpose and operation; • (B) OAR 437-001-0760, Rules for all Workplaces, through 437-001-0765, Rules for Workplace Safety Committees, and their application; and • (C) Methods of conducting safety committee meetings. • … • (c) All safety committee members shall receive training based upon the type of business activity. At a minimum, members shall receive training regarding: • (A)Hazard identification in the workplace; and • (B) Principles regarding effective accident and incident investigations. • What other training subjects might help the safety committee operate as a successful problem-solving team? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

  3. Understanding the Role and Purpose of Your Safety Committee What we do depends on who we think we are. It's important that your safety committee have an accurate view of who you are: what role your team plays in the organization. It answers the question, "Who are we"? A valuable technique to gain a better idea of the role the safety committee is to write a vision statement. The vision statement can be any length – a single sentence or a few bullet points – as long as it is clear, focused, and easily understandable. The vision statement would be included in the safety committee plan. EXERCISE: Discuss the various "roles" the safety committee might play in an organization. Example: The safety committee performs the role of an “educator” Other roles: ________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Now that we know who we are, what do we do? With an better understanding of who we are as a safety team, we can now consider our mission or purpose. To do this we will write a mission statement that answers the questions, "Why do we exist?" and "What's our primary goal?" The mission statement should also be included in the safety committee plan. EXERCISE: Develop a mission statement for your safety committee. The mission of our safety committee is to… It's our mission to… __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ OAR 437, Div 001, Rule 0765 (1) Purpose. The purpose of a safety committee is to bring workers and management together in a non-adversarial, cooperative effort to promotesafety and health in each workplace. A safety committee assists the employer and makes recommendations for change.

  4. We know who we are and what we will do; now we need to know how What are the strategies and activities to achieve the vision and mission we have developed? For instance, one activity to help identify hazards is to conduct safety inspections. EXERCISE: Develop a list of activities to achieve your goals. To fulfill our role and achieve our mission, we will… Conduct monthly safety inspection in each department________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

  5. Forming the Safety Committee • OAR 437, Div 001 Rule 765(5) Safety Committee Formation and Membership. • (a) The safety committees required by OAR 437-001-0765(2) shall: • (A) Be composed of an equal number of employer and employee representatives. Employee representatives shall be volunteers or shall be elected by their peers. When agreed upon by workers and management, the number of employees on the committee may be greater than the number of employer representatives. • (C) Have a chairperson elected by the committee members. • Why is it important to have both management and labor represented? • ______________________________________________________________ • ______________________________________________________________ • Why is it crucial that safety committee members either volunteer or be elected? • ______________________________________________________________ • ______________________________________________________________ • Why is it important to elect the chairperson? • ______________________________________________________________ • ______________________________________________________________

  6. More on this subject in Course 100 and 116. Evaluating the Safety and Health Programs OAR 437, Div 1, Rule 0765 (6)(d) Hazard assessment and control. The safety committee shall assist the employer in evaluating the employer's accident and illness prevention program, and shall make written recommendations to improve the program where applicable…. All systems have structure, inputs, processes and outputs Structure Safety Manager - The primary consultant on OSHA mandated programs. May have overall responsibility for safety management. ____________________________________ ___________________________________ ____________________________________ ___________________________________ Safety Engineer - Consults on the use of engineering controls to eliminate or reduce hazards in the workplace. ____________________________________ ___________________________________ ____________________________________ ___________________________________ Human Resources Coordinator - Consults on human resource programs that impact the safety and health of employees.  ____________________________________ ___________________________________ ____________________________________ ___________________________________ Safety Committee - Identifies, analyzes, and evaluates safety and health programs. ____________________________________ ___________________________________ ____________________________________ ___________________________________

  7. The Safety Management System A system may be thought of as an orderly arrangement of interdependent activities and related procedures which implement and facilitate the performance of a major activity within an organization. (American Society of Safety Engineers, Dictionary of Terms) All systems have structure, inputs, processes and outputs We know Syssie the cow as structure, but what are her inputs, processes, outputs? Inputs - Resources Programs Structure People Materials Facilities Time Equipment Money Inputs ________________________ Processes _____________________ Outputs _______________________ Processes – System Design 1. Commitment - leading, following, managing, planning, funding 2. Accountability – role, responsibility, discipline 3. Involvement - safety committees, suggestions, recognizing/rewarding 4. Identification - inspections, audits, observation, surveys, interviews 5. Analysis – incidents, accidents, tasks, programs, system 6. Controls - engineering, management, PPE, interim measures, maintenance 7. Education - orientation, instruction, training, personal experience 8. Evaluation - judging effectiveness of conditions, behaviors, systems, results 9. Improvement - change management, design, implementation • Outputs - Performance • Safe/Unsafe conditions, behaviors • Many/Few incidents and accidents • High/Low accident costs • High/Low productivity, morale, trust Feedback Where do we look to evaluate how well the safety management system is working? _____________________________ What are the most immediate and observable outputs of a safety management system? _____________________________

  8. More on this topic in OR-OSHA Course 122. Conduct Safety Committee Meetings OAR 437, Div 001 Rule 765(6) Safety Committee Duties and Functions. (a) Management commitment to workplace health and safety. (B) The safety committee shall hold regular meetings at least once a month except months when quarterly workplace safety inspections are made. This does not exclude other months from safety committee meetings if more frequent safety inspections are conducted. • Brainstorm this! • What makes safety committee meetings a disaster? • _______________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________ • OK, now solve these problems. • List solutions to disastrous safety committee meetings • _______________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________

  9. What do we discuss during the meeting? • Department hazard reports. These are all effects of deeper root causes. Ask "why" to get at the root causes. Maintenance requests should have already been submitted by supervisors. _______________________________________________________________ • OSHA 300 Log Status. More useful data. Conduct trend analysis. _______________________________________________________________ • Safety inspections, audits, surveys. More useful data to help improve programs. _______________________________________________________________ • Incident/Accident investigation reports. Make sure they address root causes. _______________________________________________________________ • Plans, policies, procedures, rules, reports. See if you can improve them. _______________________________________________________________ • Training. Conduct mini-training sessions. Problem solve scenarios, watch short videos. Develop a SC library. Take Train the Trainer workshop. • _______________________________________________________________ • Discuss new rules. Visit OR- OSHA's email notification service at Click on “Rules/Laws” link. Click on “Email Notification Service” to receive notification of new rules, training, and other information. • _______________________________________________________________ • Other: _______________________________________________________________

  10. More on this subject in Courses 112 and 119. Evaluating Accountability OAR 437, Div 001, Rule 0765(6)(f) The safety committee shall evaluate the employer’s accountability system and make recommendations to implement supervisor and employee accountability for safety and health. Effective Appropriate Factual Significant Accountability = Behavior + Evaluation 4 Consequences What do we evaluate? ___________________________________________ What is the evaluation based on? __________________________________ What are effective consequences? _________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ • 437-001-0760(1)(a)The employer shall see that workers are properly instructed and supervised in the safe operation of any machinery, tools, equipment, process, or practice which they are authorized to use or apply... • (b) The employer shall take all reasonable means to require employees to… • (A) To work and act in a safe and healthful manner; • (B) To conduct their work in compliance with all applicable safety and health rules; • (C) To use all means and methods, including but not limited to, ladders, scaffolds, guardrails, machine guards, safety belts and lifelines, that are necessary to safely accomplish all work where employees are exposed to a hazard; and • (D) Not to remove, displace, damage, destroy or carry off any safety device, guard, notice or warning provided for use in any employment or place of employment while such use is required by applicable safety and health rules. What’s the definition of “adequate” safety supervision? This rule requires the employer to ______________, ______________, and _______________.

  11. 437-01-0760(3) Investigation of Injuries. (a) Each employer shall investigate or cause to be investigated every lost-time injury that workers suffer in connection with their employment, to determine the means that should be taken to prevent recurrence. The employer shall promptly install any safeguard to take any corrective measure indicated or found advisable. What does this rule tell us to investigate? Is that adequate? _________________________________________________________________ Why do we investigate? _________________________________________________________________ What do we do with the findings? _________________________________________________________________ The supervisor: Agent of the Employer • OAR 437-01-0760(3)(c) Any supervisors or persons in charge of work are held to be the agents of the employer in the discharge of their authorized duties, and are at all times responsible for: • (A) The execution in a safe manner of the work under their supervision; and • (B) The safe conduct of their crew while under their supervision; and • (C) The safety of all workers under their supervision. Since the supervisor is an agent of the employer, what's the impact on employer’s accountability if a supervisor… violates a safety rule? _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Ignores violations? _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

  12. The key to safety supervision is super-vision 437-001-0760(7)(a)All places of employment shall be inspected by a qualified person or persons as often as the type of operation or the character of the equipment requires. Defective equipment or unsafe conditions found by these inspections shall be replaced or repaired or remedied promptly. The supervisor must I_____________ and C____________ hazards before they cause I____________ or I______________ to an employee. How does a person you get "qualified"? ______________________________ _________________________________________________________________ What does "promptly" mean? ______________________________________ What obligations do supervisors have to the employee? • For discipline to be justified, those in control should fulfill their obligations to the employee first. To make sure obligations are fulfilled, conduct a self-evaluation. • What questions should the supervisor or manager ask before administering discipline? E R S T L • Have I ensured the employee is adequately T______________________? • Have I made sure the employee is provided adequate R_______________? • Have I effectively E____________________ safety rules? • Have I provided adequate S_____________________? • Have I personally demonstrated safety L_________________________? When considering discipline, the fact that there was an accident is irrelevant! Do you agree/disagree with this statement? Why? ______________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

  13. E R S Optional Exercise: Accountability establishes obligation Read and evaluate each scenario to determine which describes a situation in which discipline is most justified. T L Scenario 1 Bob, a new maintenance worker who had previously been working for the company for 10 years as an assembler, received a serious electrical shock while working on a conveyor belt motor. When asked why he did not use the company’s established lockout/tagout procedures, he acknowledged that he had heard about the procedures, but evidently maintenance workers hadn't been using the “old procedures” for several years, ever since the new supervisor was hired. Bob also commented that his supervisor was under the gun by the production manager to hurry up and fix the conveyor because the whole system was shut down. Scenario 2 Ralph, a properly trained and experienced roofer for Sky High Contractors, was “caught’ by his supervisor working on a steeply pitched wood shingled roof without proper fall protection. When questioned, he stated that he knew he should be using the fall protection, and that he would be in trouble if caught. He stated that there was nothing wrong with the equipment, but it was too big of a hassle to stop working to get it out of the back of his truck. In which scenario is discipline most justified? ______________ Why? ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

  14. More on this subject in Course 126. Increasing Employee Involvement OAR 437, Div 1, Rule 0765 (6) (A) Involvement. The committee shall establish a system to allow the members to obtain safety-related suggestions, reports of hazards, or other information directly from all persons involved in the operations of the workplace. • Why do some suggestion programs fail while others succeed? • They fail because… ____________________________________________________________ • ___________________________________________________________________________________ • They succeed because… _____________________________________________________ • ___________________________________________________________________________________ • What can we do to create more interest and participation in safety committee activities? • _________________________________________________________________________________ • _________________________________________________________________________________ • Make sure recognition is effective • Recognition should be: • S_____________________ - positive recognition occurs as soon as possible after the positive performance. Negative recognition should occur soon after it's justified. • S_____________________ - employees (1) must be sure they will be recognized, and (2) sure about why they’re being recognized. Recognition is not based on luck. • S_____________________ - recognition should be perceived as more than an entitlement. The nature of (positive/negative), and significance (importance) of the recognition is defined by the receiver, not the giver. • S___________________ - informal recognition usually works best. Keep it simple and make it fun (KISMIF). The motive is more easily perceived. • S_____________________ - genuine appreciation or disapproval. Your appreciation is perceived by the receiver as sincere. Recognition is "heart-driven," not "policy-driven."

  15. Optional Exercise: Perceiving the problem • Read the following scenario and complete each assignment. • Minutes from last months safety committee meeting. • The safety committee chair informed members that two employees were caught stuffing a tuna sandwich into the safety suggestion box in the maintenance shop. • Injuries are down 10% from the year before, but have reversed and actually increased 7% during each of the last two months. Injury reports jumped the week after the safety contest for the quarter was complete. • Bob mentioned that he had to coax Billie to report her cut hand to the supervisor. When asked why she did not want to report the injury, she explained that she didn’t want to hurt the department’s chance to win the quarterly safety award. • Gloria expressed her concern that morale is low because the general attitude about management is that it doesn’t really care about employee safety. No one is really interested in the company’s incentive program so once again, we need to do something exciting to increase involvement. She recommended “Safety Bingo.” • What conditions and behaviors lead you to believe there is a problem? • _______________________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________________ • What is one recommendation that would help solve the problem? • _______________________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________________

  16. For more on this topic take Course 104. Identifying workplace hazards OAR 437, Div 1, Rule (6)(d) Hazard assessment and control. … Additionally, the safety committee shall: establish procedures for workplace inspections by the safety committee inspection team to locate and identify safety and health hazards; conduct workplace inspections at least quarterly… It takes a hazard and someone exposed to the hazard to produce an accident. Hazard + Exposure a Accident What is a "hazard?" An unsafe workplace condition or practice that could cause injury or illness to an employee. What's a condition…practice? _______________________________________________________________ Can an employee become a "hazardous condition"? _______________________________________________________________ • What is “Exposure?” • Physical exposure – When a person is generally arm’s length from the danger zone • Environmental exposure– A person can beany distance from excessivenoise, heat, etc. • What causes incidents and accidents in the workplace? • Uncontrollable events (acts of God) account for ____ % of all workplace accidents. • The safety management system contributes in some degree to over _____% of all workplace accidents.

  17. Four ways to identify and analyze hazards 1. Walkaround Inspections: Uncover hazards Formal inspection and informal observation can be effective in identifying hazardous conditions and unsafe behaviors in your workplace. • How to develop an effective inspection checklist. • Determine applicable state safety & health rules for the workplace. Call the OR-OSHA Technical Services Section, (800) 922-2689 for assistance. • Review rules and use those you feel apply to your workplace. What rules, if violated would result in serious physical harm or fatality? • Develop checklist questions not addressed in the rules. Guard against getting “tunnel vision. ” Why most walkaround inspection ineffective in identifying the causes of most accidents? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ How do we overcome this weakness in the inspection process? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ To be most effective, who should be involved in the inspection process? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

  18. Hazard Categories • Acceleration.When we speed up or slow down too quickly. • Vibration/Noise. Produce adverse physiological and psychological effects. • Toxics. Poisonous substance that is toxic to skin and internal organs. • Radiation. Non-ionizing - burns. Ionizing - destroys tissue. • Ergonomics. Unsafe lifting, lowering, pushing, pulling, twisting. • Pressure. Increased pressure in hydraulic and pneumatic systems. • Mechanical. Pinch points, sharp points and edges, weight, rotating parts, stability, ejected parts and materials, impact. • Heat/Temperature. Extremes in either can cause trauma, illness. • Flammability/Fire. In order for combustion to take place, the fuel and oxidizer must be present in gaseous form. • Explosives. Explosions result in large amounts of gas, heat, noise, light, pressure. • Electrical contact.Caused by inadequate insulation, broken electrical lines or equipment, lightning strike, static discharge, and so on. • Chemical reactions. Chemical reactions can be violent, can cause explosions, dispersion of materials and emission of heat. • Biologicals.Primarily airborne and bloodborne viruses. • Workplace Violence.  Physical violence and verbal abuse by persons external and internal to the workplace. • * Source: Occupational Safety Management and Engineering, Willie Hammer

  19. Report Identified Hazards • Use appropriate language. Is the report considered a “concern” or a “complaint?” • Keep the process simple. How can we do that? • Always recognize employees who report hazards. Writing Effective Inspection Reports • It’s important to write an inspection report to help “sell” management on taking corrective actions. The following inspection report format is designed to give management useful information describing hazards and “bottom line” costs/benefits needed to justify corrective action. • 1. The Background/Introduction section briefly outlines: • What the report is • Who conducted the inspection • Where was the inspection was conducted • Why was the inspection conducted • 2. The Findings section gives information about: • Hazardous conditions and unsafe work practices • Safety system inadequacies • Estimated costs if an accident occurs as a result of hazards • 3. The Recommendations section provides: • Strategies to eliminate/reduce hazards • Improvements to system inadequacies • Estimates of the investment required to implement changes • 4. The Conclusion/Summary section summarizes: • Costs and investments required if all changes are approved • Return on investment • Other benefits realized

  20. 2. Observation – See inappropriate behaviors • Observations are conducted daily usually in an informal manner. Other strategies include formal observations to collect and analyze data as a way to help improve the safety management system. In both cases, observation is key in uncovering hazardous conditions and unsafe behaviors. • Who should be involved in conducting observations? • ________________________________________________________________ • What does a simple formal observation program look like? • An observation program includes a written plan and procedures to conduct fact-finding observation to improve safety performance in the workplace. Procedures do this: • involve employees in the process • identify critical safety behaviors • perform observations to gather data • provide feedback to encourage improvement • use data to identify and improve safety management system weaknesses • Why do some observation programs fail? • ________________________________________________________________ • ________________________________________________________________

  21. More on this topic in Course 103. • 3. Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) • A Job Hazard Analysis, also called a job safety analysis, is an organized approach involving the worker and supervisor. They observe a task, break it down into steps, analyze each step for safety and operational needs, and provide recommendations for procedures to meet those needs. Effective use of JHAs will do the following: • Provides the supervisor with a clear understanding of what the employee does and does not know about the task • Recognizes needed changes in equipment or procedures • Provides a way to increase employee involvement. SAMPLE JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS WORKSHEET Job Description:Loading an empty trailer with pallets of product. Basic Job Step Hazards Present Safe Job Procedure  1. Worker could be caught between backing trailer and dock. Worker could fall from the dock. ……………… … . . . . .. . . 2. Worker could fall on stairs going to the dock well. Worker’s head could be struck against the trailer. Worker could slip on ice or snow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. 1.Ensure that trailer is correctly spotted. 2. Chock wheels; place jacks under trailer nose. . 1. Stay clear of the doorway while the trailer is being backed onto the dock. Keep others away from the area. Remove awareness chain or bar from the front of the dock door once the trailer is properly spotted. 2. If the truck driver has not chocked the wheels, go down the tile ramp/stairs to the dock well and chock the wheels. Use caution when walking on snow or ice. Hold onto hand rails; use ice-melt chemical if needed. When placing the chock, avoid bumping your head on the underside of the trailer. Place jacks under the nose of the trailer. If the dock is equipped with an automatic trailer restraint, push the button to activate the device. Why is it smart business for the supervisor to conduct a JHA with his or her workers? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Sample JHA from: Job Hazard Analysis, by George Swartz, CSP, Government Institutes Pub.

  22. More on this topic in Course 102. • 4. Incident/Accident Analysis OAR 437, Div 001 Rule 765 (6) (g) Accident investigation. The safety committee shall establish procedures for investigating all safety-related incidents including injury accidents, illnesses and deaths. This rule shall not be construed to require the committee to conduct the investigations. • Be ready when accidents happen • When a serious accident occurs in the workplace, everyone will be too busy to worry about putting together an investigation plan, so now... before the accident occurs... is the time to develop an effective accident investigation plan. An investigation plan should at least do the following: • 1. Include a clear policy statement. • 2. Identify those authorized to notify outside agencies (fire, police, etc.) • 3. Designate those responsible to investigate accidents. • 4. Train all accident investigators. • 5. Establish timetables for conducting an investigation and taking corrective action. • 6. Identify those who will receive the accident report and take corrective action. What's likely to happen when there is no written plan and employees are not properly trained in the incident/accident analysis process? _____________________________________________________________ No-Fault Accident Analysis If someone deliberately sets out to produce loss or injury, it's called a crime, not an accident. Yet many accident investigations get confused with criminal investigations… Whenever the investigative procedures are used to place blame, an adversarial relationship is inevitable. The investigator wants to find out what actually happened while those involved are trying to be sure they are not going to be punished for their actions. The result is an inadequate investigation. (Kingsley Hendrick, Ludwig Benner, Investigating Accidents with STEP, p 42. Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1987.)

  23. What’s the difference between an incident and an accident? • _____________________________________________________ • What two key conditions must exist before an accident occurs? • H_______________ and E_________________ • What is the difference between accident investigation and accident analysis? • _______________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________ The first two steps in the accident investigation procedure help you gather accurate information about the accident. • Step 1: Secure the accident scene Your primary goal in this step is to secure the accident scene so important evidence is not changed or moved. When is it appropriate to begin the investigation? _______________________________________________________________ What are effective methods to secure an accident scene? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

  24. Step 2: Collect facts about what happened • In this step, we collect facts about the accident to identify the: • Direct cause of injury. • Surface causes. Unique hazardous conditions and unsafe behaviors that directly cause or contribute to the accident. • Root causes. System design and performance weaknesses that contribute to the surface causes. • List methods to document the accident scene and collect facts about what happened. • Sketches Measurements • Photographs Observations • Videotape Statements • What documents will you be interested in reviewing? Why? • Standard operating procedures Inspection records • Job Hazard Analysis Inspection records • MSDS sheets Maintenance records • Training records Manufacturer's manual • Disciplinary records Interviewing Interviewing is probably the most important method in gathering facts. It takes experience to develop effective interviewing skills. When is it best to interview? Why? ______________________________________________________________ Who should we interview? Why? ______________________________________________________________ Where should we conduct the interview? ______________________________________________________________

  25. The next two steps help you organize and analyze the information gathered so you may accurately determine the surface and root causes. • Step 3: Develop the sequence of events • An accident is the final event in an accident process • In this step, we take the information gathered in step 2 to determine the events prior to, during, and after the accident. Once the events are clearly understood, we can then continue to examine each event for hazardous conditions and/or unsafe behaviors. Developing the sequence of events is critical in the accident “analysis” process in order to fix the system. • Each event in the unplanned accident process identifies one: • Each event describes what one person or object (the actor) does (action). The actor initiates the action that may or may not be observed. For instance, in this event, "Dale slipped on a banana," Dale is the actor and slipped is the action. Sample Sequence of Events Event -6 Steve uses a piece of stock as a push stick but it doesn't work, so he decides not to use it. Event -5 At 5:32 PM, Steve pushes a piece of frame stock toward the unguarded saw blade to cut it. Event -4 At that same instant, Bob yells out, "Hey, Steve, get over here right now!" Event -3 Steve yells back, "WHAT!," as he quickly turns his head to the left to respond to Bob. Event -2 As Steve turns his head, his body twists to the left. Event -1 Steve's hand contacts the unguarded rotating table saw blade. Event 0 The saw blade strikes and cuts Steve's hand between the thumb and fore-finger, almost amputating the thumb. Event 1 Steve screams and falls to the floor unconscious. Event 2 Hearing Steve yell, and seeing him fall to the floor, Bob immediately tells Gloria to call 911. Event 3 Gloria calls 911 while Bob runs over to perform first aid on Steve's hand.

  26. Step 4: Determine surface and root causes Why? Why? Ladder broke Hurry Surface Causes Contributing Primary Ignores hazards Bad breaks Does not inspect Slippery road Why? Fatigue Fails to enforce Bald tires Does not train LTA discipline LTA inspections Why? Root Causes Design Performance LTA tools, equipment LTA training LTA supervision plan LTA enforcement Plan Why? LTA purchasing plan LTA training Plan * LTA = Less Than Adequate

  27. The last two steps will help you develop and propose solutions that correct hazards and design long-lasting system improvements. Step 5: Recommend corrective actions & System Improvements • The Hierarchy of Controls: If you can remove the hazard, you don't have to manage behaviors • Engineering Controls. Eliminate/reduce hazards through equipment redesign, replacement, substitution, etc. • Management Controls. Eliminate/reduce exposure to hazards by controlling employee behaviors. Three primary strategies: (1) work procedures, (2) safe practices, (3) scheduling. • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Eliminate exposure by placing barriers between worker and hazard.. • Interim Measures.These include strategies that are used as a temporary fix while permanent controls are being developed. Improvement strategies to fix the system • Make improvements to policies, programs, plans, processes, and procedures in one or more of the seven elements of the safety management system. Making system improvements might include some of the following: • Writing a comprehensive safety and health plan that include all of the above elements • Improving a safety policy so that it clearly establishes responsibility and accountability • Changing a training plan so that the use of checklists are taught • Revising purchasing policy to include safety considerations as well as cost • Changing the safety inspection process to include all supervisors and employees

  28. For more on this topic take Course 107, and 111. Writing Effective Recommendations OAR 437, Div 1, Rule 765 (6) (d) Hazard assessment and control. The safety committee shall… make written recommendations to improve the program where applicable… OAR 437, Div 1, Rule 765 (6) (e) Safety and health planning.The safety committee shall establish procedures for the review of all safety and health inspection reports made by the committee. … the committee shall make recommendations for improvement of the employer's accident and illness prevention program. To sell safety, talk the bottom line All recommendation, verbal or written, must be designed with one purpose in mind: To provide information that will motivate a decision-maker to support, sign, and implement the change that will improve the safety and health environment for the workers. Here’s a sample recommendation that illustrates this idea: 1) Problem Statement: The guardrail in the warehouse has deteriorated to a point that it is unable to support any weight on it. 2) History of the Problem: We had an incident on 6/13/03 where Joe Jones almost fell down the 10 steps because the guard rail did not support his weight. He fortunately caught himself before falling. We had a second near miss incident on 9/18/03 when Jane Doe tripped going up the stairs and grabbed for the rail which did not support her. Based on these events, it’s highly likely a serious injury may occur within a year. 3) Solution(s): We have attempted to tighten and brace the guardrail but it continues to work itself loose. We believe the best option is to replace the guardrail with a manufactured system meeting all OSHA requirements. We have bids ranging from a high of $3,200 to a low bid of $1,500. We believe the xyz brand for $2,000 will prove to be the best material for our facility. 4) Cost/Benefit Analysis: ROI. Average cost of a severe injury in Oregon is $13,107 which is very possible if one of our employees should fall from the second story of the warehouse to the concrete pad below. The estimated additional indirect cost is $18,000. Total accident cost is estimated to be over $31,000. We will save over five times our investment of $2,000 if an accident is prevented within a year.

  29. Selling the Bottom Line - What do accidents cost? Direct Costs Insured Unseen costs can sink the ship! “Just the tip of the iceberg” Average 2005 Cost to close a claim in Oregon = $14,499 1. Workers’ compensation premiums 2. Miscellaneous medical expenses Indirect Accident Costs Hidden - Uninsured - Out of pocket Average 2005 indirect accident costs in Oregon = $60,000 • A few examples: • Cost of wages paid for time lost by other non-injured workers • Net cost to repair, replace, or straighten up material or damaged equipment • Extra cost due to overtime work • Cost of wages paid for supervisor activities related to employee injuries • Wage cost due to decreased output of injured workers after returning to work • Cost-of-learning period of new worker • Uninsured medical costs • Cost of time to investigate accidents, process claims • Miscellaneous unusual costs. (over 100 other items) Average 2005 total injury costs in Oregon = $74,499 Ref: Grimaldi and Simons, Safety Management, ASSE Pub. • Ouch! Replacing direct and indirect accident costs • Using National Safety Council average direct and indirect costs for 2003, and assuming a five percent profit margin, how much business volume is needed to replace accident costs? (For a 5% profit margin, BV = 20x accident costs!) • Non-Lost-time injury: $7,000 x 20 = $ 140,000 • Lost- time injury: $38,000 x 20 = $ 720,000 • Fatality: $1,100,000 x 20 = $ 22,000,000

  30. Step 6: Write the accident report The primary reason accident investigations fail to help eliminate future accidents is because they only identify and recommend corrections to surface causes. Root causes are often ignored. Let's take a look at one format for ensuring an effective report. • 1. Background. Describe when and where the accident occurred, who was injured, eye/ear witnesses, and others who were interviewed as part of the investigation. • 2. Description of the Accident.Describe the sequence of relevant events prior to, during, and immediately after the accident. Attach separate page if necessary. You may want to retain event numbers in the narrative. • 3. Findings.Identify the surface causes and root causes of the accident, and be sure to explain why you believe they, in fact, did cause or contribute to the accident. If the safety manager or staff conducts root cause analysis, they will include their finding and justification related to the system weaknesses that contributed to the accident. • 4. Recommendations.Detail suggested immediate corrective actions that will reduce or eliminate the hazard and exposures that caused the accident. Describe suggested changes in safety programs to improve the ability to provide safety leadership, resources, enforcement, supervision, and training. • 5. Summary. Estimate costs of the accident, required investment, and future benefits of corrective actions. • 6. Follow-up Actions.Describe equipment/machinery repaired, training conducted, etc. Describe system components developed/revised. Indicate persons responsible for monitoring the quality of the change. Indicate review official. • 7. Attachments. Photos, sketches, interview notes, etc.

  31. For more on this topic take OR-OSHA Course 104. Helping the employer control hazards OAR 437, Div 1, Rule 765 (6) (d) Hazard assessment and control. The safety committee shall … make written recommendations…to eliminate hazards and unsafe work practices in the workplace. • 1. Engineering Controls - Eliminate or reduce the hazard • The basic goal is to eliminate or reduce hazards through the design of tools, equipment, machinery and the environment. • Engineering controls are based on the following broad strategies: • Design. If feasible, design the facility, equipment, or process to remove the hazard and/or substitute something that is not hazardous or is less hazardous. Examples: • Redesigning, changing, or substituting equipment to remove the source of excessive temperature, noise, or pressure;   • Redesigning a process to use less toxic chemicals;  • Designing general ventilation with sufficient fresh outdoor air to improve indoor air quality and generally to provide a safe, healthful atmosphere. • Enclosure. If removal is not feasible, enclose the hazard to prevent exposure in normal operations. Examples include: • Complete enclosure of moving parts of machinery;  • Complete containment of toxic liquids or gases; • Complete containment of noise, heat, or pressure-producing processes. • Barriers. Where complete enclosure is not feasible, establish barriers or local ventilation to reduce exposure to the hazard in normal operations. Examples include: • Ventilation hoods in laboratory work;  • Machine guarding, including electronic barriers;   • Baffles used as noise-absorbing barriers.

  32. 2.Management Controls - Eliminate or reduce exposure • Any procedure which significantly limits daily exposure by control or manipulation of the work schedule or manner in which work is performed is considered a means of management control. • General Work Practices. Some of these may be very general in their applicability. These control strategies include housekeeping activities such as: •  Removal of tripping, blocking, and slipping hazards; •  Wearing personal protective equipment (PPE); and •  Wetting down surfaces to keep toxic dust out of the air. • Specific Procedures. Specific jobs may require steps to ensure the safety and health of workers while accomplishing the job. To develop these procedures, you may conduct a job hazard analysis. • Procedures that require the use of PPE • Scaffold erection procedures • Chemical spill procedures • Work Schedules. Measures aimed at reducing employee exposure to hazards by changing work schedules. These control strategies include: • Lengthened rest breaks • Additional relief workers • Exercise breaks to vary body motions • Rotation of workers through different jobs Why are engineering controls considered superior to management controls? ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________

  33. 3. Personal Protective Equipment PPE is last in the hierarchy because it doesn't reduce or control the hazard, and it is time-consuming to select the correct type of PPE. It also takes up a lot of management time to make sure workers are trained and actually use the equipment. 4. Interim Measures Just about any hazard found in the workplace can be eliminated or reduced temporarily: For instance, two people might lift a heavy load until a lift device can be purchased. Effective Maintenance Processes • 1. Preventive maintenance to help make sure equipment and machinery operates safely and smoothly. • 2. Corrective maintenance to help make sure equipment and machinery gets back into safe operation quickly. Hazard Tracking Procedures XYZ Hazard Tracking Log

  34. For more information on this topic take OR-OSHA Course 110. Continual improvement Consider how the change you propose will impact all elements of the safety management system. The Oregon OSHA safety management system model includes seven critical elements: 1. Top Management Commitment 5. Incident/Accident Investigation 2. Labor and Management Accountability 6. Education and Training 3. Employee Involvement 7. Periodic Evaluation 4. Hazard Identification and Control Successful change requires effective design and implementation Continual feedback Adopt, abandon, or revise program as needed Plan and develop improvements Implement improvements Monitor process Plan Do Study Act What will be the result if a change is not designed or performed effectively? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

  35. Before you run…let’s review • 1. All systems have S _____________, I ________________, P ______________, and O ________________. • 2. What approximate percentage of accidents that occur in the workplace are unavoidable ? • 3. Which of the following describes a surface cause for an accident? • a. A staff member fails to replace a guard after servicing equipment • b. No lockout/tagout procedure is in place • c. The training plan does not include supervisor safety training • d. An inspection process does not include machine guarding hazards • 4. Which of the following describes a possible root cause of an accident? • a. An unguarded saw • b. A missing lockout/tagout device • c. PPE training does not contain practice of spill procedures. • d. A forklift driver speeds around a corner in the warehouse. • 5. If you can get rid of the _______ you don't have to manage________. • a. exposure, hazards • b. hazards, exposure • c. hazards, non-compliance • d. exposure, non-compliance

  36. 6. For best results, analyze accidents to fix the ___________________ not the __________________: • 7. When it comes to discipline, the accident is an important consideration: • a. True, it should always be considered • b. False, it’s irrelevant • 8. The most effective accident investigations analyze __________________ to determine _____________________. • a. the accident, fault • b. employee performance, surface causes • c. the accident, root causes • d. quickly, blame • 9 True/False. Safety committee recommendations may be submitted in writing or presented orally. • 10. Before disciplining an employee, the supervisor should always: • a. retrain the employee • b. review disciplinary policy • c. evaluate own performance • d. discipline the same day

  37. Reference Materials

  38. Total Claims: 22,627 Average Cost: $14,337 2004 Average Cost For Disabling Claims By Event or Exposure (Partial List) • Event or Exposure CLAIMS AVERAGE • Leading to Injury (Partial list) CLOSED COST($) • Lifting objects 2,611 12,697 • Bodily reaction, other 2,307 11,638 • Fall to floor, walkway 2,190 12,545 • Repetitive motion 2,178 15,658 • Overexertion, all other 1,235 13,913 • Pulling, pushing objects 1,107 13,728 • Caught in equipment or objects 961 14,347 • Struck by falling object 810 13,481 • Holding, carrying, wielding objects 667 16,515 • Loss of balance 607 13,269 • Struck against stationary object 563 11,179 • Struck by swinging/slipping object 521 8,114 • Struck by, other 477 12,551 • Highway accidents, collisions 430 20,191 • Fall from ladder 402 20,797 • Fall onto, against objects 370 13,476 • Fall to lower level, all other 361 18,806 • Fall from non-moving vehicle 335 22,855 • Fall down stair or step 289 15,466 • Struck by flying object 258 16,898 • Assault or violent act by person 254 15,048 • Struck against moving object 179 11,414 • Struck by vehicle 174 28,797 • Contact with hot object 171 3,538 • Nonhighway accident 159 23,978 • Exposure to noise 149 11, 613 • Jump to lower level 129 22,641 • Fall from floor, dock, ground level 108 24,036 • Contact with skin, tissue 98 5,453 • Fall to same level, other 68 15,506 • Fall from roof 65 47,567 • Bodily reaction, exertion, other 62 8,334 • Fall from scaffold 44 31,975 • Vibration 29 22,352 • Explosion 29 25,173 The top 10 total 65% of all closed disabling claims. Ergonomics injuries total 45% of all closed disabling claims! 14,673 Subtotal You may request a complete list from the Research and Analysis Section, Information Management Division, Department of Consumer and Business Services.

  39. Evaluating the employer's accountability system • Evaluation Audit. An effective accountability system is required to ensure compliance with required employer safety standards. Here’s a simple checklist your safety committee can use to evaluate your organization’s accountability system. (0=Does not exit, 1=Needs Work, 3=Meets Standard, 5=Exceeds Standard) • 1. Formal standards and expectations. Before employees can be held accountable, management must design and communicate employee accountabilities. • Do clear safety policies, plans, processes, procedures, practices exist? • Are safety standards written in the primary language(s) of all employees? • Are safety policies and rules discussed with new employees at orientation? • Are reasons discussed for the importance of following safety rules and policies? • Resources to meet/exceed expectations. Before management can hold employees accountable, they must first fulfill their obligation to provide employees with the tools to perform safely. • Physical Resources • Are tools, equipment, machinery and materials adequate in ensuring a safe workplace? • Are workstations designed to be ergonomically appropriate for the assigned worker? • Is adequate Personal Protective Equipment provided to employees? • Are chemical, noise, atmospheric and other environmental safety hazards controlled? • Psychological-Social Support • Is adequate initial safety orientation training being provided? • Is adequate safety training on specific safety procedures being provided? • Is management providing adequate safety leadership through example? • Are workloads reasonable? (Employee has ability to complete work without undue physical or psychological stress) • Are work shifts reasonable? (Does not produce excessive fatigue) • Is an Employee Assistance Program (EAP) available? • Do employees suffer any negative consequences from working safe? • Do positive working relationships exist between employees and supervisors?

  40. 3. A process of evaluation. It’s important that behaviors are measured and evaluated so that discipline is based on facts, not feelings. • Is a process of observation and feedback in place and carried out effectively? • Are compliance behaviors evaluated rather than results (such as getting injured)? • Do employees have control (authority) over behaviors/results being measured? • Are the results of observations being tracked to improve the safety management system? • Do formal appraisals/reviews index safety performance? • 4. Effective consequences. Without effective consequences, improvement of behaviors and performance will not occur. • Is discipline for noncompliance expected? • Does discipline occur soon after justification is established? • Do employees know exactly why they are being disciplined (given the facts)? • Are the motives for disciplining perceived as sincere attempt to help, not hurt? • Do disciplinary procedures change behavior/performance in the desired direction? • Is discipline progressively more significant for repeated noncompliance? • 5. Appropriate application of Consequences. Appropriate consequences ensure discipline is justified and perceived as fair. • Does management first make sure that their obligations to employees are have been fulfilled before disciplining? (clear expectations, resources, training, enforcement, example) • Does discipline occur as a result of failure to comply with safety policies and rules (behaviors) rather than “having an accident” (results)? • Are employees automatically disqualified from safety recognition/rewards if they have an accident? • Is discipline consistently applied throughout the organization - top to bottom and across functions? • Is the purpose of discipline to improve performance rather than merely to punish? • Is recognition occurring more often than discipline? • Is discipline appropriate to the severity of the infraction? • Is discipline appropriate to the negative impact the infraction has on the company? • 6. Evaluation of the accountability system. This element is essential in continually improving the accountability system. • Is the safety committee evaluating the accountability system on a periodic/continuous schedule? • Are all processes within each of the accountability system elements evaluated? • Does the safety committee submit the evaluation results to management? • Does the safety committee develop and submit recommendations to improve the accountability system? • Does management respond to and implement safety committee recommendations?

  41. Evaluating the incentive/recognition system If you Regularly Recognize and Reward, you'll Rarely have to Recognize! • Evaluation Audit.An effective safety incentive/recognition system, like accountability, involves a number of very important processes within six primary elements. Here's a simple checklist your safety committee can use to evaluate your incentive/recognition system. (0=Does not exit, 1=Needs Work, 3=Meets Standard, 5=Exceeds Standard) • 1. Formal standards and expectations. It's important that recognition and reward policies and expectations are clearly written and communicated to all employees. • Do written policies, plans, processes, procedures, practices exist? • Are policies and procedures discussed with new employees at orientation? • Are policies and procedures communicated in the primary language(s) of all employees? • 2. Commitment and support. Management demonstrates leadership by committing resources and supporting employee involvement. Employees must feel confident that they'll be recognized and rewarded for their involvement. • Is commitment and support addressed in the written incentive/recognition plan? • Are employees provided adequate resources in support of their involvement. • Are employees educated and trained so that they have the knowledge and skills required to actively participate, make suggestions or otherwise contribute? • Is adequate time provided for involvement in safety committees and other activities? • Is management leadership evident through their involvement in safety? • Are workloads reasonable? (Employees can get involved in safety without jeopardizing other responsibilities) • Do employees suffer any negative consequences as a result of their involvement? • Does recognition occur more often than discipline? • 3. A system of evaluation. It's important that behaviors are measured and evaluated so that positive recognition and reward is based on facts, not feelings. • Is a measurement process addressed in the written recognition plan? • Is recognition criteria based on behaviors/activities over which employees have control? • Is measurement criteria clearly communicated and understood? • Do sustained performance of mandatory behaviors result in personal recognition? • Do voluntary behaviors result in personal recognition and reward? • Are incentives deliberately designed to increase desired behaviors? • Are rewards controlled and monitored by management? • Are standard procedures used to identify employees, activities, incentives?

  42. 4. Effective consequences. Without effective consequences, improvement in behaviors and performance will not occur. • Does recognition occur soon after the performance? • Is recognition/reward based on behaviors or luck? • Are games (safety bingo, drawings, etc) used to determine who gets recognize/rewarded? • Are first, best, most improved categories part of the recognition process? • Does the recognition/reward process include individual/group competition? • Are employees certain they will be recognized for professional performance? • Do employees know exactly what behaviors lead to recognition? • Are recognition and rewards considered significant/meaningful to employees? • Are the motives for recognition and rewards perceived as sincere? • Do recognition procedures actually result in changed behavior/performance in the desired direction? • 5. Appropriate application. Appropriate intervention ensures discipline is justified and perceived as fair. • Are recognition and reward contingent on individual behavior. (not next on the list, politics, favoritism, etc) • Does recognition/reward occur as a result of meeting/exceeding behavioral expectations rather than "working accident free." • Are employees automatically disqualified from safety recognition/rewards if they have an accident? • Are employees involved in determining criteria and recognition/rewards? • Is the recognition/reward process consistently applied throughout the organization - top to bottom and across functions? • Is recognition and reward appropriate to the positive impact on the organization? • Do employees consider the recognition/reward process fair? • 6. Evaluation of the incentive/recognition system. This element is essential in continually improving the processes within the system. • Are the safety committee/safety coordinator evaluating the recognition system on a periodic/continuous schedule? • Are all procedures within each of the recognition system elements evaluated? • Does the safety committee submit the evaluation results to management? • Does the safety committee develop and submit recommendations to improve the recognition system? • Do safety committee recommendations for improvement include cost/benefit analysis? • Does management respond to and implement safety committee recommendations in a timely manner?

  43. Sample Safety Committee Plan • Although your safety committee doesn’t have to have a formal plan, it's a good idea to write one. This example shows the plan for the imaginary ABC Company’s safety committee. • Name. The name of the committee is the ABC Safety Team. • Purpose. The purpose of the Safety Team is to bring all ABC Company employees together in a cooperative effort to achieve and maintain a safe, healthful workplace. • Goal. The goal of the Safety Team is to help management eliminate workplace injuries and illnesses by involving employees and managers in identifying hazards and suggesting how to prevent them. • Strategies. The Safety Team has four strategies to meet its goal and purpose: • Involve employees in achieving a safe, healthful work-place. • Promptly review all safety-related incidents, injuries, accidents, illnesses, and deaths. • Conduct quarterly workplace inspections, identify hazards, and recommend methods for eliminating or controlling hazards. • Annually evaluate the ABC Company’s workplace safety and health program and recommend to management how to improve the program. • Representatives. The Safety Team will have ten voting representatives. Five or more members will represent employees and up to five members will represent management. Employee representatives can volunteer or their peers can elect them. Management representatives will be selected by management. Each representative will serve a continuous term of at least one year. Terms will be staggered so that at least one experienced representative always serves on the committee. • Chair and vice-chair. The Safety Team will have two officers: chair and vice-chair. One officer will represent labor and one officer will represent management. • Terms of service. Chair and vice-chair will each serve a one-year term. • Duties of the chair. The duties of the chair: • Schedule regular Team meetings. • Develop written agendas for meetings. • Conduct the meeting. • Approve Team correspondence and reports. • Supervise the preparation of meeting minutes. • Duties of the vice-chair. The duties of the vice-chair: • In the absence of the chair, assume the duties of the chair. • Perform other duties as directed by the chair.

  44. Election of chair and vice-chair. The election of a new chair or vice-chair will be held during the monthly committee meeting before the month in which the incumbent’s term expires. If the chair or vice-chair leaves office before the term expires, an election will be held during the next scheduled safety committee meeting; the elected officer will serve for the remainder of the term. • Training. New representatives will receive training in safety committee functions, hazard identification, and accident investigation procedures. OR-OSHA will provide training through its occupational safety and health workshops and on-line courses. • Meetings. The ABC Safety Committee will meet the third Tuesday of each month, and immediately after the committee conducts quarterly workplace safety inspections. • Attendance and alternates. Each representative will attend regularly scheduled safety-committee meetings and participate in quarterly workplace inspections and other committee activities. Any representative unable to attend a meeting will appoint an alternate and inform the chair before the meeting. An alternate attending a meeting on behalf of a regular representative will be a voting representative for that meeting. • Agenda. The agenda will prescribe the order in which the ABC Safety Committee conducts its business. The agenda will also include the following when applicable: • A review of new safety and health concerns • A status report of employee safety and health concerns under review • An analysis and evaluation of all workplace incidents and accidents occurring since the last committee meeting. • Minutes. Minutes will be recorded at each committee meeting and distributed via e-mail to all ABC Company employees. The committee will submit a copy of the minutes to the ABC Company personnel office; the office will retain the copy for three years. All reports, evaluations, and recommendations of the Team will be included in the minutes. The minutes will also identify representatives who attended monthly meeting, and representatives who were absent. • Voting quorum. Six voting representatives constitutes a quorum. A majority vote of attending representatives is required to approve all Team decisions. Issues not resolved by majority vote will be forwarded to management for resolution. The “one-person-one-vote” rule applies. • Employee involvement. The Safety Team will encourage employees to identify workplace-health-and-safety hazards. Concerns raised by employees will be presented to the Team in writing; the Team will review new concerns at the next regularly-scheduled monthly meeting. • Safety Log. The Safety Team will maintain a log of all employee concerns, including the date received, recommendations to management, and the date the concern was resolved.

  45. Response. The Safety Team will respond to employee concerns in writing and work with management to resolve them. The Team will present written recommendations for resolving concerns to management. Management will respond in writing to written recommendations according to the following schedule: • Recommendations to correct hazards/behaviors that could cause serious physical harm or a fatality: Immediately, or as soon as possible, but not more than one day one day after receipt of a written recommendation. • Recommendations to correct hazards/behaviors that could cause minor injury or illness: Within 14 days of receipt of a written recommendation. • Recommendations to improve programs, plans, policies and other elements of the safety and health program: Within 21 days of receipt of a written recommendation. • Incident/Accident Analysis (IAA). The Safety Team will analyze new incident and accident reports to make sure root cause analysis and safety management system evaluation has been conducted. When necessary, the Team will provide written recommendations to management to improve incident/accident reporting. • Workplace inspections. The Safety Team will conduct quarterly work-place inspections of all company facilities in March, June, September, and December. • Written reports. The Safety Team will prepare a written report for management that documents the location of all health or safety hazards found during inspection. The report will recommend options for eliminating or controlling the hazards. As prescribed above, management will respond in writing to the committee, indicating acceptance, rejection, or proposed modification of the recommendations. • Evaluation. The Safety Team will evaluate the company’s workplace-safety-and-health program annually and provide a written evaluation of the program to management. The Team will also evaluate its own activities each December and use the evaluation to develop an action plan for the next calendar year. • Prepared by: ____________________________________ Date: ___________________________ • Approved by: ___________________________________ Date: ___________________________

  46. OAR 437-001-0765 Rules for Workplace Safety Committees. • (1) Purpose. • The purpose of a safety committee is to bring workers and management together in a nonadversarial, cooperative effort to promote safety and health in each workplace. A safety committee assists the employer and makes recommendations for change. • (2) General. • (a) Every public or private employer of 11 or more employees shall establish and administer a safety committee. • (b) Every public or private employer of 10 or fewer employees shall establish and administer a safety committee if the employer: • (A) Has a Lost Workday Case Incidence Rate (LWDCIR) in the top 10 percent of all rates for the employers in the same industry; or • (B) The employer is not an agricultural employer and the workers’ compensation premium classification assigned to the greatest portion of the payroll for the employer has a premium rate in the top 25 percent of premium rates for all classes as approved by the Director pursuant to ORS 737.320(3). • (c) In making the determination of employment levels under sections (a) and (b) of this rule, the employer shall count all permanent, contract, temporary, and/or seasonal workers under the employer’s direction and control, and shall base the number on peak employment. • (d) Temporary services employers and labor contractors shall establish safety committees based upon the total number of workers over which the employer or contractor exercises direction and control. • (e) Employers who hire only seasonal workers shall meet the intent of these rules by holding crew safety meetings prior to the commencement of work at each job site. Such meetings shall promote discussions of safety and health issues. All workers shall be informed of their rights to report workplace hazards, and shall be encouraged to make such reports during the meetings. • (f) Employers in the logging industry may meet the intent of these rules by complying • with OAR 437, Division 7, Forest Activities.

  47. (3) Locations. • (a) Safety committees shall be established at each of the employer’s primary places of employment. For the purpose of these rules, a primary place of employment shall mean a major economic unit at a single geographic location, comprised of a building, group of buildings, and all surrounding facilities (Examples of primary places of employment would include a pulp or lumber mill, a manufacturing plant, a hospital complex, bank, a farm/ranch, a school district, or a state agency.) As a primary place of employment the location would have both management and workers present, would have control over a portion of a budget, and would have the ability to take action on the majority of the recommendations made by a safety committee. • (b) An employer’s auxiliary, mobile, or satellite locations, such as would be found in construction operations, trucking, branch or field offices, sales operations, or highly mobile activities, may be combined into a single, centralized committee. This centralized committee shall represent the safety and health concerns of all the locations. • (c) In addition to locating safety committees at each primary place of employment, an employer with work locations which include fire service activities shall establish a Fire Service Safety Committee as required by OAR 437-002-0182(7) in OAR 437, Division 2/L, Oregon Rules for Fire Fighters. • (4) Innovation. • Upon application, the division may approve safety committees which are innovative or differ in form or function, when such committees meet the intent of these rules. • (5) Safety Committee Formation and Membership. • (a) The safety committees required by OAR 437-001-0765(2) shall: • (A) Be composed of an equal number of employer and employee representatives. Employee representatives shall be volunteers or shall be elected by their peers unless there is a provision in their collective bargaining agreement that addresses the selection of employee representatives. When agreed upon by workers and management, the number of employees on the committee may be greater than the number of employer representatives. Seasonal workers shall not be counted for the purpose of determining the number of members who will serve on the committee. • (B) Consist of: • (i) No fewer than 2 members for each employer with 20 or less employees, or • (ii) No fewer than 4 members for each employer with more than 20 employees. • (C) Have a chairperson elected by the committee members.

  48. (b) Employee representatives attending safety committee meetings required by OAR 437-001-0765(2) or participating in safety committee instruction or training required by OAR 437-001-0765(7) shall be compensated by the employer at the regular hourly wage. • (c) Employee representatives shall serve a continuous term of at least 1-year. Length of membership shall be alternated or staggered so that at least one experienced member is always serving on the committee. • (d) Reasonable efforts shall be made to ensure that committee members are representative of the major work activities of the firm. • (6) Safety Committee Duties and Functions. • (a) Management commitment to workplace health and safety. • (A) The committee shall develop a written agenda for conducting safety committee meetings. The agenda shall prescribe the order in which committee business will be addressed during the meeting. • (B) The safety committee shall hold regular meetings at least once a month except months when quarterly workplace safety inspections are made. This does not exclude other months from safety committee meetings if more frequent safety inspections are conducted. • (C) Quarterly safety committee meetings may be substituted for monthly meetings where the committee’s sole area of responsibility involves low hazard work environments such as offices. • (D) Small farms of five or fewer full time employees may substitute quarterly meetings for monthly meetings during the farms’ off season. The off season shall mean that period of time when only routine farm upkeep is being done. • (b) Written records. • (A) Minutes shall be made of each meeting which the employer shall review and maintain for 3 years for inspection by the Division. Copies of minutes shall be posted or made available for all employees and shall be sent to each committee member. • (B) All reports, evaluations, and recommendations of the safety committee shall be made a part of the minutes of the safety committee meeting. • (C) A reasonable time limit shall be established for the employer to respond in writing to all safety committee recommendations.

  49. (c) Employee involvement. • (A) The committee shall establish a system to allow the members to obtain safety related suggestions, reports of hazards, or other information directly from all persons involved in the operations of the workplace. The information obtained shall be reviewed at the next safety committee meeting, and shall be recorded in the minutes for review and necessary action by the employer. • (d) Hazard assessment and control. • (A) The safety committee shall assist the employer in evaluating the employer’s accident and illness prevention program, and shall make written recommendations to improve the program where applicable. Additionally, the safety committee shall: • (i) Establish procedures for workplace inspections by the safety committee inspection team to locate and identify safety and health hazards; • (ii) Conduct workplace inspections at least quarterly; and • (iii) Recommend to the employer how to eliminate hazards and unsafe work practices in the workplace; • (B) The inspection team shall include employer and employee representatives and shall document in writing the location and identity of the hazards and make recommendations to the employer regarding correction of the hazards. • (C) Quarterly inspections of satellite locations shall be conducted by the committee team or by a person designated at the location. • (D) Mobile work sites or locations and activities which do not lend themselves to a quarterly schedule shall be inspected by a designated person as often as Oregon occupational safety and health rules require and/or the committee determines is necessary. • (E) The person designated to carry out inspection activities at the locations identified in sections (C) and (D) of this rule shall be selected by the employer and shall receive training in hazard identification in the workplace. • (e) Safety and health planning. The safety committee shall establish procedures for the review of all safety and health inspection reports made by the committee. Based on the results of the review, the committee shall make recommendations for improvement of the employer’s accident and illness prevention program.