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Overview of Chemistry

Overview of Chemistry

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Overview of Chemistry

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  1. Overview of Chemistry

  2. What’s the center or target? Building Blocks Putting them together Disassembling them Rearranging them

  3. Chemical Reactions

  4. Synthesis (combination) • Medicine • Flavorings • Plastics • High energy fuels

  5. O H C C H O H H SYNTHESIS OF FLAVORINGS Acetic acid splits into acetate (C2H3O2)- and H+ O O - C O C - - H3C OH -

  6. O|| HO H H H O C C C H H H H H SYNTHESIS OF FLAVORINGS O H O H H H H C C H H C O C C C C O H H H O H H H H H H O|| O|| CH3-CH2-CH2-OH + CH3C-OH  H2O + CH3CH2CH2-O-CCH3 Propyl alcohol + acetic acid (vinegar) O|| OH H2O + + O

  7. O|| O|| HO HO O|| O|| O O O|| O|| O OH HO + Octanol (or gasoline>alcohol) +acetic acid water + Octyl acetate (orange flavor) H2O + + OH Benzyl alcohol (globs in lava lamps) + acetic acid  water + Benzyl acetate H2O + + OH Isopentenyl alcohol + acetic acid  water + Isopentenyl acetate (Juicy-Fruit)

  8. O|| O|| O H2O + + HO OH Ethanol (liquor) + butyric acid (rancid butter)  water + Ethyl butyrate (Apple flavor) O|| O|| H2O + HO O + OH HO Amyl alcohol (oil of potato spirit) + salicylic acid (wart remover)  water +Amyl salicylate

  9. amyl (unmilled grain) (5 carbon) (butyric acid= rancid butter) ALCOHOL ACID ESTER FRAGRANCE 1 n-amyl alcohol butyric acid apricot 2 n-amyl alcohol salicylic acid pineapple 3 n-amyl alcohol glacial acetic acid banana 4 n-octyl alcohol glacial acetic acid fruity 5 methyl alcohol salicylic acid wintergreen 6 ethyl alcohol butyric acid apple 7 ethyl alcohol glacial acetic acid fruity RCOOH + HOR  RCOOR' + H2Oorganic acid + alcohol ester + water H+

  10. Decomposition • Speed up decomposition • Toxic waste • Waste • Fats • Explosives • Slow down decomposition • Anti-rust • Anti-aging

  11. Anything into OilTechnological savvy could turn 600 million tons of turkey guts and other waste into 4 billion barrels of light Texas crude each year depolymerization

  12. AB  A + B (NH4)2Cr2O7 N2 + 4H2O + Cr2O3 (NH4)2Cr2O7 N2 + 4H2O + Cr2O3

  13. Single replacement A + BC B + AC • Design of batteries 3Zn + 2Cu3PO4 6Cu + Zn3(PO4)2

  14. Each potato generates about 0.5 volts and 0.2 milliamps. The entire 500 lb battery generated around 5 volts and 4 milliamps.

  15. Single replacement A + BC B + AC • Sacrificial corrosion Zn + FeCl2 Fe + ZnCl2

  16. Protects all metals below it These corrosion products occupy from 2 to 14 times the volume of the original steel, creating an expansive force that is sufficient to cause the concrete to crack. Zinc corrodes so iron or aluminum will not corrode.

  17. Double replacement AB + CD AD + CB • Purification (barium is poisonous) • BaCl2 + MgSO4 BaSO4 + MgCl2 • Ba2+(aq)+2Cl-(aq)+Mg2+(aq)+SO42-(aq)BaSO4(s)+Mg2+(aq)+2Cl-(aq)

  18. Double replacement AB + CD AD + CB Ag + Mg • Extraction • (Nitric acid)  AgNO3(aq) + Mg(NO3)2(aq) • AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)

  19. Double replacement AB + CD AD + CB • Neutralizing corrosives • NaOH + CH3COOH NaC2H3O2 +HOH

  20. Double replacement AB + CD AD + CB • Neutralizing corrosives • 2HCl + Na2CO3 2NaCl + H2CO3 • H2CO3 H2O + CO2(g) HCl

  21. Oxidation (combustion)[loss of electrons] • Improve oxidation • Cleaner burning fuels • Better fireworks • Antiseptic • Hyperbaric chambers • Resist oxidation • Rust proofing • Antioxidants

  22. Chemical Reactions

  23. Atoms combine to form compounds in simple ratios, such as 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 1:3, and so forth.

  24. Double replacement. 3NaOH + Al(NO3)3 3NaNO3 + Al(OH)3

  25. Children Cycle Company

  26. Wheels only come in pairs Promote our Super Durable tires Biggest cost will be in the tires

  27. Recall slow moving inventoryand transfer tires to fast moving inventory

  28. Manufacture Cars Car Body = Cb Pair of Wheels = W2 Cb + W2 CbW4 How many orders of each do we make? Cb + 2W2 CbW4

  29. We need Fire extinguisher Fluid Carbon~Car body Chlorine~Pair wheels C + Cl2 CCl4 Carbon tetrachloride How many orders of each do we make? C + 2Cl2 CCl4 Cl Cl Cl C Cl Cl Cl

  30. Manufacture Tricycles Trike Body = Tb Pair of Wheels = W2 Tb + W2 TbW3 How many orders of each do we make? 2Tb + 3W2 2TbW3

  31. We need anti-perspirant (Drysol) Aluminum~Tricycle body Chlorine~Pair wheels Al + Cl2 AlCl3 How many orders of each do we make? 2Al + 3Cl2 2AlCl3 Cl Al Cl Cl

  32. Cars aren't selling. We need more bicycles. Car body = Cb Pair of Wheels = W2Bicycle body = Bb bike bodies + cars  bicycles + car bodies Bb + CbW4 BbW2 + Cb 2 bike bodies + 1 car  2 bicycles + 1 car body 2Bb + CbW4 2BbW2 + Cb

  33. Cl Ca C Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Fire extinguishers not selling. We need de-icers Carbon~Car body Chlorine~pair of wheelsCalcium~bicycle body Calcium + carbon tetrachloride  Calcium chloride + carbon Ca + CCl4 CaCl2 + C 2Ca + CCl4 2CaCl2 + C

  34. Tricycles aren't selling. We need more bicycles. Trike Body = Tb Pair of Wheels = W2Bicycle body = Bb Tricycles + bike bodies  bicycles + trike bodies TbW3 + Bb  BbW2 + Tb 2 tricycles + 3 bike bodies  3 bicycles + 2 trike bodies 2TbW3 + 3Bb  3BbW2 + 2Tb

  35. Cl Al Cl Cl Anti-perspirants not selling, we need de-icers Aluminum~Tricycle body Chlorine~Pair wheelsCalcium~bicycle body AlCl3 + Ca  CaCl2 + Al 2AlCl3 + 3Ca  3CaCl2 + 2Al

  36. Tricycles aren't selling. We need more wagons. Trike Body = Tb Pair of Wheels = W2Wagon body = Wb Wagon bodies + Tricycles  Wagons + trike bodies Wb + TbW3 WbW4 + Tb 3 Wagon bodies + 4 Tricycles  3 Wagons + 4 trike bodies 3Wb + 4TbW3 3WbW4 + 4Tb

  37. Cl Al Cl Cl Anti-perspirants are selling, Intel wants silicon tetrachloride Aluminum~Tricycle body Chlorine~Pair wheelsSilicon~Wagon Body Si + AlCl3 SiCl4 + Al 3Si + 4AlCl3 3SiCl4 + 4Al Cl Si Cl Cl Cl