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Chemistry and Cells: Overview PowerPoint Presentation
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Chemistry and Cells: Overview

Chemistry and Cells: Overview

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Chemistry and Cells: Overview

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  1. Chemistry and Cells:Overview

  2. Basic Biochemistry • Study of chemical compositions and reactions of living things • Organic • Molecule with carbon, often large • Inorganic • All other chemcals in the body

  3. Inorganic Molecules • Water • Salts • Acids and Bases

  4. Organic Molecules • Carbohydrates: sugars, energy • Lipids: fats • Protein: major players in cellular structure and function • Nucleic Acids: DNA, RNA

  5. Most important molecule of All… • ATP: adenosine triphosphate • ATP + H2O ADP + Pi + energy • hydrolysis

  6. Cell Theory • The cell is the basic unit of life • Every living thing is made of cells • Every cell comes from a pre-existing cell

  7. Parts of the cell • Plasma membrane • Fluid mosaic model • Function: • Protective barrier • Membrane transport • Cytoplasm • Material between the plasma membrane and nucleus • Site where most cellular activities occur

  8. Cytoplasmic Organelles • Mitochondria: “power plants of the cell” • Produce ATP (cellular energy) • Complex organelles, have own DNA and RNA and can reproduce themselves • Ribosomes: site of protein synthesis

  9. Cytoplasmic Organelles • Endoplasmic Reticulum: “network” • Rough • studded with ribosomes • “membrane factory” • Smooth • Involved in synthesis and processing of “fat”

  10. Cytoplasmic Organelles • Golgi Apparatus: “traffic director” • Transports newly formed proteins from the rough ER to their final destination • Modify, concentrate and packages proteins along the way • Lysosomes: the cell’s “demolition crew” • Digests biological molecules • Involved in detoxification

  11. The Nucleus • Control Center: contains entire genetic information • Bound by nuclear envelope • Nucleoli: site of ribosome production • Chromatin: composed of DNA and histones

  12. Cell Life Cycle: Interphase • G1: cells are active and growing • S: DNA replicates itself • G2: growth and final preparation for division

  13. Mitotic Phase: M • Prophase: sister chromatids align, mitotic spindle forms • Metaphase: nuclear membrane fragments, centromeres align at equator of mitotic spindle • Anaphase: daughter chromosomes are pulled to opposite sides of the cell • Telophase: new nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes, cleavage of two cells • See figure 3.30 on pg. 100

  14. Protein Synthsis • Transcription • transfer of information from DNA to complimentary mRNA (RNA polymerase) • Within nucleus • Translation: • mRNA travels to ribosome where tRNA brings appropriate amino acids to align to mRNA codons