1 / 52

Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging

Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging CHAPTER 20 Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging Overview X-rays High-energy electromagnetic waves Travel in straight lines Shorter wave length than visible light Able to penetrate solid materials of varying densities

Télécharger la présentation

Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging CHAPTER 20

  2. Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging Overview • X-rays • High-energy electromagnetic waves • Travel in straight lines • Shorter wave length than visible light • Able to penetrate solid materials of varying densities • Capable of exposing a photographic plate (X-ray film) • Much the same way as a camera exposes film

  3. Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging Overview • X-rays • Used to visualize internal organs and structures of body • Provide valuable means for verifying presence of illness or disease • Radiology • Study of the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of X-rays

  4. PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging

  5. Angiocardiography(Cardiac Catheterization) • Pronounced • (an-jee-oh-kar-dee-OG-rah-fee) • (CAR-dee-ak kath-eh-ter-ih-ZAY-shun) • Defined • Specialized diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is introduced into a large vein or artery • Usually of an arm or a leg, and is then threaded through circulatory system to the heart

  6. Angiography • Pronounced • (an-jee-OG-rah-fee) • Defined • Series of X-ray films allowing visualization of internal structures after the introduction of a radiopaque substance

  7. Cerebral Angiography • Pronounced • (seh-REE-bral an-jee-OG-rah-fee) • (SER-eh-bral an-jee-OG-rah-fee) • Defined • Injection of a radiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel (carotid, femoral, or brachial) to make visualization of the cerebral vascular system via X-ray possible

  8. Renal Angiography • Pronounced • (REE-nal an-jee-OG-rah-fee) • Defined • X-ray visualization of internal anatomy of the renal blood vessels (blood vessels of the kidney) after injection of a contrast medium

  9. Arteriography • Pronounced • (ar-tee-ree-OG-rah-fee) • Defined • X-ray visualization of arteries following the introduction of a radiopaque contrast medium into the bloodstream through a specific vessel by way of a catheter

  10. Arthrography • Pronounced • (ar-THROG-rah-fee) • Defined • Process of taking X-rays of the inside of a joint, after a contrast medium has been injected into the joint • Contrast medium makes the inside of the joint visible

  11. Barium Enema (BE) • Pronounced • (BAH-ree-um EN-eh-mah) • Defined • Infusion of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, into the rectum • Contrast medium is retained in lower intestinal tract while X-ray films are obtained of the lower GI tract

  12. Barium Swallow(Upper GI Series) • Pronounced • (BAH-ree-um SWALL-oh) • Defined • Oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows into the esophagus as the person swallows • X-rays are taken as barium sulfate flows into the upper GI tract

  13. Bronchography • Pronounced • (brong-KOG-rah-fee) • Defined • Bronchial examination via X-ray following the coating of the bronchi with a radiopaque substance

  14. Cholangiography(Intravenous) • Pronounced • (koh-lan-jee-OG-rah-fee) • (in-trah-VEE-nus) • Defined • Visualizing and outlining of the major bile ducts following an intravenous injection of a contrast medium

  15. Cholangiography(Percutaneous Transhepatic) • Pronounced • (koh-lan-jee-OG-rah-fee) • (per-kyoo-TAY-nee-us trans-heh-PAT-ik) • Defined • Examination of bile duct structure using a needle to pass directly into an intrahepatic bile duct to inject a contrast medium • Also known as PTC or PTHC

  16. Cholangiopancreatography(Endoscopic Retrograde) • Pronounced • (koh-lan-jee-oh-pan-kree-ah-TOG-rah-fee) • (en-doh-SKOP-ic RET-roh-grayd) • Defined • Procedure that examines the size of and the filling of the pancreatic and biliary ducts through direct radiographic visualization with a fiberoptic endoscope

  17. Cholecystography(Oral) • Pronounced • (koh-lee-sis-TOG-rah-fee) • Defined • Visualization of the gallbladder through X-ray following the oral ingestion of pills containing a radiopaque iodinated dye

  18. Cineradiography • Pronounced • (sin-eh-ray-dee-OG-rah-fee) • Defined • Diagnostic technique combining the techniques of fluoroscopy, radiography, and cinematography by filming the images that develop on a fluorescent screen with a movie camera

  19. Computed Axial Tomography (CT, CAT) • Pronounced • (kom-PEW-ted AK-see-al toh-MOG-rah-fee) • Defined • Painless, noninvasive diagnostic X-ray procedure using ionizing radiation that produces a cross-sectional image of the body

  20. Computed Axial Tomography

  21. Voiding Cystourethrography • Pronounced • (VOYD-ing sis-toh-yoo-ree-THROG-rah-fee) • Defined • X-ray visualization of the bladder and urethra during the voiding process, after the bladder has been filled with a contrast material

  22. Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) • Pronounced • (DIJ-ih-tal sub-TRAK-shun an-jee-OG-rah-fee) • Defined • X-ray images of blood vessels only, appearing without any background, due to the use of a computerized digital video subtraction process

  23. Echocardiography • Pronounced • (ek-oh-kar-dee-OG-rah-fee) • Defined • Diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart via ultrasound • Useful in evaluating structural and functional changes in a variety of heart disorders

  24. Fluoroscopy • Pronounced • (floor-or-OSS-koh-pee) • Defined • Radiological technique used to examine the function of an organ or a body part using a fluoroscope

  25. Hysterosalpingography • Pronounced • (his-ter-oh-sal-ping-OG-rah-fee) • Defined • X-ray assessment of uterus and fallopian tubes by injecting a contrast material into these structures

  26. Lymphangiography • Pronounced • (lim-fan-jee-OG-rah-fee) • Defined • X-ray assessment of lymphatic system following injection of a contrast medium into lymph vessels in the hand or foot

  27. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) • Pronounced • (mag-NET-ik REZ-oh-nans IM-ij-ing) • Defined • Noninvasive scanning procedure that provides visualization of fluid, soft tissue, and bony structures without the use of radiation

  28. Mammography • Pronounced • (mam-OG-rah-fee) • Defined • Process of taking X-rays of the soft tissue of the breast to detect various benign and/or malignant growths before they can be felt

  29. Myelography • Pronounced • (my-eh-LOG-rah-fee) • Defined • Introduction of contrast medium into the lumbar subarachnoid space through a lumbar puncture to visualize the spinal cord and vertebral canal through X-ray examination

  30. Positron Emission Tomography Scan (PET) • Pronounced • (POZ-ih-tron ee-MISH-un toh-MOG-rah-fee) • Defined • Noninvasive diagnostic imaging method that demonstrates the biological function of the body before anatomical changes take place • Scan produces computerized radiographic images of the body structures when radioactive substances are administered to the patient • Substances are inhaled or injected

  31. Pyelography(Intravenous) (IVP) • Pronounced • (pye-eh-LOG-rah-fee) • (in-trah-VEE-nus) • Defined • Radiographic procedure that provides visualization of the entire urinary tract: kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra • Also known as intravenous pyelogram or excretory urogram

  32. Radiation Therapy • Pronounced • (ray-dee-AY-shun THAIR-ah-pee) • Defined • Delivery of ionizing radiation to accomplish one or more of the following: • Destruction of tumor cells • Reduction of tumor size • Decrease in pain • Relief of obstruction • To slow or stop the spread of cancer cells

  33. Radiation Therapy • Radiation therapy • Destroys rapidly multiplying cells regardless of whether they are cancerous • Goal is to reach maximum tumor control with no, or minimal, normal tissue damage • May be delivered by teletherapy (external) • May be delivered by brachytherapy (internal)

  34. Radioactive Iodine Uptake • Pronounced • (ray-dee-oh-AK-tiv EYE-oh-dine UP-tayk) • Defined • Examination that determines the position, size, shape, and physiological function of the thyroid gland through the use of radionuclear scanning • Image of the thyroid is recorded and visualized after a radioactive substance is given

  35. Scanning (Bone, Brain, Liver, Lungs) • Pronounced • (SCAN-ing) • Defined • Scanning is the process of recording emission of radioactive waves, using a gamma camera (scanner) • After an intravenous injection of a radionuclide material into the particular part of the body being studied

  36. Scanning (Bone, Brain, Liver, Lungs) • Defined • Image of the area being studied is displayed by recording concentration or collection of a radioactive substance specifically drawn to that area

  37. Scanning • Bone • Involves intravenous injection of a radionuclide material absorbed by bone tissue • Used to detect spread of cancer to the bones, osteomyelitis, and other destructive changes in the bones

  38. Scanning • Brain • Nuclear scanning of cranial contents two hours after an intravenous injection of radioisotopes • Useful in diagnosing abnormal findings such as an acute cerebral infarction, cerebral neoplasm, cerebral hemorrhage, brain abscess, aneurysms, cerebral thrombosis, hematomas, hydrocephalus, cancer metastasis to the brain, and bleeds

  39. Scanning • Liver • Noninvasive scanning technique that enables the visualization of the shape, size, and consistency of the liver after the IV injection of a radioactive compound • Useful in detecting cysts, abscesses, tumors, granulomas, or diffuse infiltrative processes affecting the liver

  40. Scanning • Lung • Visual imaging of the distribution of ventilation or blood flow in the lungs by scanning the lungs after the patient has been injected with or has inhaled radioactive material

  41. Scanning • Spleen • Noninvasive scanning technique that enables the visualization of the shape, size, and consistency of the spleen after injection of radioactive red blood cells • Useful in detecting damage, tumors, and other problems

  42. Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) • Pronounced • (single FOH-ton ee-MISH-un kom-PEW-ted toh-MOG-rah-fee) • Defined • Nuclear imaging procedure that shows how blood flows to tissues and organs • Tracking of radioactive material allows physician to see perfusion of blood to tissues and organs

  43. Small Bowel Follow-Through • Pronounced • (Small Bowel Follow-Through) • Defined • Oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows through the GI system • X-ray films are obtained at timed intervals to observe progression of barium through small intestines

  44. Tomography • Pronounced • (toh-MOG-rah-fee) • Defined • X-ray technique used to construct a detailed cross-section, at a predetermined depth, of a tissue structure • Useful in identifying space-occupying lesions in the liver, brain, pancreas, and gallbladder

  45. Ultrasonography(Ultrasound) • Pronounced • (ull-trah-son-OG-rah-fee) • Defined • Procedure in which sound waves are transmitted into body structures as a small transducer is passed over the patient’s skin • Sound waves are reflected back into the transducer and are interpreted by a computer that converts waves to a composite picture form

  46. Ultrasonography • Abdominal ultrasound • Use of reflected sound waves to provide reliable visualization of the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, and ureters

  47. Ultrasonography • Pelvic ultrasound • Noninvasive procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to examine the abdomen and pelvis • Can be used to locate a pelvic mass, an ectopic pregnancy, or an intrauterine device, and to inspect and assess the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes

  48. Ultrasonography • Renal ultrasound • Noninvasive ultrasound of the kidneys that is useful in distinguishing between fluid-filled cysts and solid masses, detecting renal calculi, identifying obstructions, and evaluating transplanted kidneys • Thyroid Echogram (ultrasound) • Ultrasound examination important in distinguishing solid thyroid nodules from cystic nodules

  49. Venography • Pronounced • (vee-NOG-rah-fee) • Defined • Technique used to prepare an X-ray image of veins • Veins are injected with a radiopaque contrast medium • Phlebography

  50. X-rays • Pronounced • (ECKS-rays) • Defined • Use of high-energy electromagnetic waves, passing through the body onto a photographic film, to produce a picture of the internal structures of the body for diagnosis and therapy

More Related