Ch. 7 America Enters the World Stage Section 1: The Lure of Imperialism What is imperialism and why does America become an imperialistic nation? (list 5 reasons why) Why did the United States take control of Hawaii? Two reasons What two events allowed America to gain greater influence in China? What event forced Japan to open trade with America and what effect did this have on Japan?
What is Imperialism?Why does America become an Imperialistic Nation?American Imperialism: Reasons for – YouTubeList 5 reasons why America became an imperialistic nation
Economic Interests… During the industrial revolution, industrialized countries became very rich, and in order to make more money what did they have to do? In order to make more goods and more money what did they need more of? Military Needs… As countries grew in power so did their militaries. Especially their Navy. Why? These navies needed strategically placed bases for refueling and repairs? Ideologies… Ideologies such as Nationalism?, Social Darwinism/cultural superiority, and Manifest Destiny justified European and American expansion into Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Why America wanted to become an imperialistic nation.
Based on this quote, define Nationalism Can you name a war that was started because of Nationalism?
The Imperialists By the late 1800s, European nations had taken over much of the world through imperialism. Great Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, and Japan were all imperialistic countries. Britain ruled about ¼ of the world. Many Americans now believed it was time for the U.S. to claim its own land in the world. What happens if America does NOT become imperialistic? America and The Imperialist Powers
What did America conquer a lot of? Which Continent was most affected by imperialism?
American missionaries were the first to come to Hawaii. (300,000 – 40,000) The sugar industry became very powerful in Hawaii. King Kalakaua negotiated a sugar treaty that made Hawaiian sugar cheap to import to the United States. What effect did this treaty have on Hawaii? A group of American business leaders formed the Hawaiian League, to overthrow the King. Why did they want to overthrow the king? The Hawaiian League told the king that they would renew the treaty, only if they got Pearl Harbor, the King said NO! The Hawaiian League forced King Kalakaua to sign a new constitution at gunpoint. This became known as the Bayonet Constitution (gave America Pearl Harbor and eliminated the King’s power.) Later, In order to help domestic sugar producers the U.S. revoked the sugar treaty. What does this mean for the American sugar planter in Hawaii? In order to survive American Business leaders knew Hawaii needed to be part of America, so that the sugar industry in Hawaii would survive. How America took Control of Hawaii
End of the Monarchy and the Annexation of Hawaii. • King Kalakaua died in 1891 and his sister Liliuokalani became queen. • Queen Liliuokalani wanted the monarchy to regain power over Hawaii. • John L. Stevens, the American minister to Hawaii, Without authorization! Ordered marines to overthrow Queen Lili. • Sugar Tycoon, Sanford B. Dole, became president of Hawaii • Grover Cleveland condemned the actions and would not annex? Hawaii. • William McKinley favored annexation and Hawaii became a U.S. territory in 1898. (state in 1959)
The Open Door Policy gives the United States an equal footing in China. • (Opium Wars) European powers (Russia, France, Japan and Great Britain) gained spheres of influence in China. Sphere of influence = when a foreign nation controls an area of another nation. What do they want with China? • America feared that they would not be able to have access to China’s vast resources, so secretary of State John Hay proposed the Open Door Policy, giving all nations equal trading rights in China. • With so many foreign countries controlling different parts of China the Chinese began to hate the foreigners. • A group called the Boxers began attacking and destroying anything or anyone associated with these foreign invaders (Christianity, books, Europeans) • In 1900 the Boxers destroyed the capital city of Beijing in what became known as the Boxer Rebellion. • Foreign nations cooperated to stop the rebellion. From the Boxer Rebellion these foreign countries realized that they needed to work together in order to exploit China for everything its got. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T8B0kY68644??
Japan was isolated and unindustrialized until the mid-1800s. Commodore Matthew Perry brought four steamships into Tokyo Bay in 1853 to pressure Japan to open its ports to trade. Japan was amazed by Commodore Perry’s ships and in 1854 Japan agreed to open to the U.S. In less than 50 Years, Japan transformed itself into an industrial power, built a strong military, and became a powerful imperialistic nation. What caused this? After taking over Taiwan, Japan wanted Korea and Manchuria, Russia wanted this land also. In 1904 the Russo-Japanese war started. President Roosevelt, negotiated a peace treaty between the two (Treaty of Portsmouth) Japan was a clear winner though Roosevelt wanted to intimidate Japan and the rest of the world (The Great White Fleet) What if Commodore Mathew Perry never sails into Japan? Diplomacy and naval superiority help the U.S. gain influence in Japan.
CH. 7 America Enters the World Stage Section 2: The Spanish American War List at least 4 causes of the Spanish American War? What four islands did America get after the Spanish American War? How did this new land help America to grow more powerful? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IU5l4yQCpMM
1. Who did America fight in the Spanish American War?2. What started the war?3. Who Won?4. What did America get from the war?
Cuba was one of Spain’s last remaining colonies. How did Spain treat the Cuban people? Cubans began to revolt against Spain beginning in 1868. Spain reacted by exiling the Cuban revolutionary leaders. José Marti (Cuban revolutionary leader) moved to New York City in 1878, Jose Marti continued to fight for Cuban independence through newspaper articles and poetry. What was he trying to do, by writing about what was going on in Cuba? Marti returned to Cuba to participate in a revolt in February 1895 but was killed, he became a national hero. General ValerianoWeyler, one of Spain’s top generals, was sent to put an end to the revolt. General Weyler put 300K civilians into concentration camps. Of the 300K about 100K died of starvation and disease. Cubans were furious and Americans began to hear more stories about Spain’s horrible treatment of the Cuban people. By trying to stop the Cuban rebellion, what did General Weyler actually do? Simmering Unrest in Cuba
Americans were already sympathetic to the Cubans. Cuba reminded Americans of something? Two of the most widely read newspapers were the New York Journal (William Randolph Hearst) and the New York World (Joseph Pulitzer) These Newspapers reported the Cuban revolution with exaggerated headlines and articles. (Yellow Journalism) Why do they do this? “you furnish the photographs… Ill furnish the war” ?? A Cuban spy got a letter from Spain’s minister to the U.S., Enrique Dupuy de Lome, “President McKinley weak!”, the letter was published by the New York Journal. (Thede Lome Letter) The battleship USS Mainemysteriously blew up in Havana harbor, killing 260 American sailors. “DESTRUCTION OF THE WAR SHIP MAINE WAS THE WORK OF AN ENEMY” The explosion was blamed on a Spanish mine, it was actually a fire. “remember the Maine, the hell with Spain!” On April 25, 1898. the Spanish American War had begun. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0wFrAny77UY Americans Get War Fever
New York World New York Journal William Randolph Hearst
The Philippines Future President Theodore Roosevelt sent Commodore George Dewey orders to prepare for war against Spain. 4/25/1898 Dewey engaged the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. Waited to fire for 30 mins. Steel- and iron-hulled U.S. ships helped to defeat the Spaniards. Within hours Spain was defeated (0 – 400) Dewey then planned an attack on Manila Filipino rebels, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, had already been fighting Spain for two years Surrounded by Dewey (at sea) and Aguinaldo (on land), Spanish forces surrendered on 8/14/1898 Cuba Before declaring war, U.S. created the Teller Amendment(after war Cuba will be a free nation)? U.S. was unprepared for war in Cuba: wool uniforms, Lack of food, and lack of supplies American strategy was to control the port city of Santiago. Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders (Athletes, cowboys, actors, musicians, miners) and the Buffalo Soldiers helped gain control of the city at the Battle of San Juan Hill. (6 buffalo soldiers and 2 rough riders got the medal of honor including TR) The U.S. Navy sank the entire Spanish fleet off the coast of Cuba. Soon after the war was over. The Spanish American War
Rough Riders Buffalo Soldiers
America becomes more powerful • Spain gave up all claims to Cuba. The U.S. would “leave the government and control of the island to its people” (Teller Amendment) • The United States gained territory in Puerto Rico and Guam. • Spain turned over the Philippines for $20 million. • The war cost $250M and 5K soldiers died, 379 from combat. • These new lands made America’s military and economy more powerful. How?
Annexing the Philippines Controversy raged in the United States over whether or not to annex the Philippines. For the Annexation of the Philippines • Believed the United States had a duty to spread its values overseas. What ideology is this belief? • Philippines had economic and strategic value that should not fall into the hands of other countries. • Against the Annexation of the Philippines • Believed annexation would violate the ideal of self-government (Anti-Imperialist League) • Did not want American oppression to spread (Colored Citizens of Boston) • Some Americans believed annexation would increase immigration to the United States. Samuel Gompers and the AFL
The Philippines • The U.S. Senate narrowly approved annexation of the Philippines in February 1899. • Filipinos were infuriated • Fighting broke out in the Philippines. Filipino independence fighters (Emilio Aguinaldo) battled U.S. soldiers for three years. (4K U.S. and 220K Filipinos died) • Filipino voters did have a voice in government. They were allowed to elect representatives. • On July 4, 1946, the United States granted full independence to the Philippines.
Roosevelt and Latin America Section 3: Roosevelt and Latin America: Why did America want control of Cuba and Puerto Rico, and what Amendment gave America control of Cuba? How did America get the rights to build the Panama Canal and Why did America build the Panama Canal? What was the Roosevelt Corollary and why was it created? What types of Diplomacies did Taft and Wilson use to gain greater control of Latin America?
After Spanish American War, President William McKinley set up a military government in Cuba. ?? yellow fever was very bad in Cuba. (85% death rate) U.S. Army doctors Walter Reed and William C. Gorgas proved Cuban doctor Carlos Juan Finlay’s theory was correct. Standing water was eliminated in Cuba, and yellow fever was virtually eliminated in Havana within six months. U.S.-appointed Governor of Cuba Leonard Wood oversaw the drafting of a new Cuban Constitution in 1901. U.S. feared that other imperialist nations might take over Cuba U.S. forced Cuba to include the Platt Amendment. This limited Cuba’s ability to sign treaties with other nations and gave the U.S. the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and set up military bases. This led to the establishment of the U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay. The Platt Amendment made Cuba a U.S. protectorate – a country under the control and protection of another country. The United States in Cuba
President McKinley also set up a military government on this island. The United States governed Puerto Rico as a territory. Foraker Act of 1900 established that the U.S. would appoint a governor and upper house of legislature. Puerto Rican voters elected the lower house. A 1917 law granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship and ability to elect all legislative representatives. In 1952, Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth, with power over most of its domestic affairs. The U.S. still controls interstate trade, immigration, and military affairs. The United States in Puerto Rico
Preparing for the Panama Canal The United States bought the rights to build the canal from the French in 1902. U.S. Interest • Panama was a part of the Republic of Colombia. • Columbia agreed to lease a canal zone for a one time payment of $10M and a yearly fee of $250K • Columbia then rejected the deal and demanded more money • Panama then revolted against Columbia, and the U.S. supported this revolution (U.S. military was involved) • A new treaty with the government of newly formed Panama gave the United States complete control of the 10-mile-wide Canal Zone. Panama’s Revolution
Building the Panama Canal • American work began in May 1904. • Harsh working conditions, material shortages, malaria, and yellow fever hampered construction. • Of the 80,000 workers 28,000 died • President Roosevelt appointed Dr. William C. Gorgas focused on sanitation and health concerns. • Dr. Gorgas once again eliminated Yellow fever and malaria, how did he do it? • Lt. Col. George W. Goethals took over the job of building the canal… through his work he earned the nickname, Genius of the Panama Canal • Cost 640 million dollars • On August 1914 the SS Ancon became the first ship to pass through the canal. • https://youtu.be/Pv0upmpPw3c