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Viruses: Beneficial, Infectious and Vaccines

Viruses: Beneficial, Infectious and Vaccines

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Viruses: Beneficial, Infectious and Vaccines

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  1. Viruses: Beneficial, Infectious and Vaccines John Clouse, Ashley Hillman, Raegan Racliffe, Josh Stolber

  2. Overview • Viruses can be harmful and helpful to the survival of humans • Many viruses mutate which influence the altering of human vaccines  • Attenuated and Inactivated vaccines and how they are used •  Subunit and Toxoid vaccines and how they are used

  3. Josh 1: How Viruses are Used Positively in the Real World • Viruses help in gene therapy • Act as carriers for treatment in medicine • Can be used to wipe out groups against us in biological weapons • Helps eliminate cancerous cells

  4. Josh 2: Pathogens • Anything that can cause disease • Ex; bacterium, viruses, fungus • Come in contact with them everyday • Body kills them before they cause harm • Dose – amount of organisms in body • Virulence – strength of organism • Host Resistance – ability of immune system to fight organism

  5. Josh 3: How viruses harm us • Attack our cells • Use cells as host to multiply • Take nutrients from cells so cells starve and die • Crowd cells so they cannot function

  6. Josh 4: How disease is spread and how to prevent it. • Coughing or sneezing without covering mouth • Blood exchange • Animals and insects • Cover mouth • Be "socially distant" • Use alcohol-based hand sanitizers

  7. Ashley 1 What is influenza? • Viral infection that effects the respiratorysystem • This infectious disease is caused by influenzavirus •  Influenza is part of orthomyxoviridae which is a family of viruses  • Influenza virus travels in air through droplets of mouth and nose

  8. Ashley 2 Why do you need to get the flu vaccine every year?  • Antigenic drift causes genetic shifts in production • This Mutation causes new proteins to effect virus • Genetic changes result in a unique virus • Humans do not have immunity to fight new virus 

  9. Ashley 3 Why else should you get the flu vaccination? • Influenza vaccination protects people against viruses that cause the flu • Reduce severity of illness if you get sick • Preventative tool for people with Chronic health conditions • Protect women during and after pregnancy

  10. Ashley 4 How does the vaccination work? • Injection of a weak microbe to stimulate immune system • Immune system recognizes invading virus • Body produces antibodies against virus • Creates Immunity

  11. raegan 1 Attenuated Vaccines • Contain a microorganism with the diseasethat has been weakened/altered in the lab • Closest thing to "natural infection" teaches the immune system how to prevent the disease from infecting the body • Draw out strong cellular and antibody responses and present lifelong immunity after few doses

  12. raegan 2 When Do We Use Attenuated Vaccines? • People who have damaged or weakened immune systems cannot be given vaccines • Used to alter a disease so it becomes harmless • Ex: Measles, Mumps, Chicken pox, BGC, Typhoid, etc.

  13. raegan 3 Inactivated Vaccines  • Consists of virus particles, bacteria, etc. that have been grown in culture then killed using heat or formaldehyde • More stable and much safer than live (attenuated) vaccines • Viral microorganisms cannot mutate back to their disease-causing state • Takes several doses to maintain immunity

  14. raegan 4 When Do We Use Inactivated Vaccines?  • The disease may have already infected the body • Pathogens are grown under controlled conditions and are killed as a means to reduce infectivity • Should not be used with elderly people or those with an immunodeficiency

  15. John 1 Subunit Vaccines • AVaccine using part of a virus to create an immune response  • Only contains the antigens that best stimulate the immune system • Can contain anywhere from 1 to 20 antigens

  16. John 2 When would you use a Subunit Vaccine • This type of vaccine has been made for the Hepatitis B virus • Scientists inserted Hepatitis B genes into the vaccine to code for important antigens

  17. John 3 Toxoid Vaccines • Vaccine that is used when a toxin is the main cause of illness • Scientists found that they can inactivate toxins • Inactivating toxins occurs when being used with formalin • Formalin is a solution of sterilized water and formaldehyde

  18. John 4 When would you use a Toxoid Vaccine • Used to make Antibodiesfor toxins • Protects against Tetanus and diphtheria • Used for immuneresponses and immunological memory is formed

  19. Josh ABC 1: Viruses harm us by crowding cells so they cannot do what? • A: self-destruct • B: Function • C: Destroy other cells • D: Make DNA Answer: B

  20. Josh ABC 2: What is the definition of virulence? • A: Amount of organisms in the body • B: Gavin's ability to make puns • C: Ability of immune system to fight organism • D: Strength of organism Answer: D

  21. Ashley ABC 1Why is it necessary to get the flu shot every year? A. The vaccinewears off over the course of a year. B. It improves your defense against allergies as well. C. The influenza virus mutates and the body needs new antibodies to protect itself. D. Every time you take it, you have less of a chance to get the flu. Answer: C

  22. Ashley ABC 2True or False: After someone gets the influenza vaccination, they are unable to fight against influenza. A. True B. False Answer: B

  23. Raegan ABC 1 Which vaccine contains a weakened pathogen of the virus? A. Inactivated Vaccine B. Attenuated Vaccine Answer: B

  24. Raegan ABC 2 How do inactivated vaccines eliminate the virus? A. Heat or formaldehyde B. Weakened in lab C. Submerged in fluid  D. Strengthen immune system  Answer: A

  25. John ABC 1 • What vaccine contains 1 to 20 antigens? A: Conjugate Vaccines B: Subunit Vaccines C: Toxoid Vaccines D: Inactivated Vaccines Answer: B

  26. John ABC 2 • What does a Toxoid Vaccine do? A: Inactivates Toxins to build immunity B: Used to make antibodies for toxins C: All of the above D: None of the above Answer: C

  27. Overview Summary • Viruses can be harmful and helpful to the survival of humans  • Many viruses mutate which influence the altering of human vaccines   • Attenuated and Inactivated vaccines and how they are used  •  Subunit and Toxoid vaccines and how they are use