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Wind in WNC

Wind in WNC

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Wind in WNC

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  1. Windin WNC Oct 27, 2007Andrews, NC Brent Summerville, ASU

  2. NC Small Wind Initiative • Appalachian State University Project to promote wind energy in Western NC • Beech Mountain wind site • Anemometer Loan Program • Mapping • Wind Site Assessments • Workshops and Presentations • Ordinance work • Media Outreach • Reach us at: wind.appstate.edu wind@appstate.edu 828-262-7333

  3. Wind Power History 1400 – 1800 years ago,in the Middle East 800 – 900 years ago in Europe 140 years ago,water-pumpingwind mills 70 years ago, electric power

  4. 2MW Mod-1 Turbine: 1979 - 1983

  5. 1980s California Wind Rush

  6. 1980s Denmark Got it Right

  7. Today: Wind Energy is Reliable and Cost Effective Wind has become the least expensive and fastest growing source of electricity in the world -details at www.gwec.net

  8. Mountain Ridge Protection Act of 1983 Exemptions to Ridge Law “No building, structure or unit shall protrude at its uppermost point above the crest of the ridge by more than 35’ “ Water, radio, telephone or television towers or any equipment for the transmission of electricity or communications or both. Structures of a relatively slender nature and minor vertical projections of a parent building, including chimneys, flagpoles, flues, spires, steeples, belfries, cupolas, antennas, poles, wires, or windmills NC Attorney General’s 2/4/2002 letter to TVA “The Legislature in 1983 had in mind, the traditional, solitary farm windmill which has long been in use in rural communities, not windfarm turbines of the size, type, or certainly number proposed here…”

  9. Our Wind Resource

  10. Like most things, wind is powered by the Sun

  11. What causes wind? • Differences in pressure and temperature • Solar Power • Uneven heating of the Earth’s surface • Differences in heating and cooling rates • Earth’s rotation

  12. Flagging: Deformed Growth from Persistent Winds

  13. Extreme Flagging on Grandfather

  14. Wind Maps

  15. Updated Hi-res Map

  16. Location and Percentage of High Quality Wind Resources in the US Class 6 (4.3%) Class 5 (6.3%) Class 4 & above 27.5%

  17. Average Wind Speed is the Key • Most important variable Power ~ V3 • Double speed and power increases 8 times • 73% more power in a 12 mph wind than a 10 mph wind • This is why it is so important to carefully assess

  18. Western NC Wind Potential

  19. New Hi-Res North Carolina Wind Map

  20. We are not in South DakotaCareful site analysis is important

  21. North Carolina Coastal Resources

  22. 24 County Western NC Wind Map

  23. County Wind Maps for Western NC • True Wind Map Combined With: • Road data • Digital elevation models • Public lands • Appalachian Trail • Town boundaries • Utility grid • Tax parcel maps www.wind.appstate.edu

  24. What Fir Tree Farm - Watauga

  25. Hattie Hill Site - Watauga

  26. Wind Monitoring Activities • Actual on-site measurements

  27. Measuring Devices and Parameters Anemometer Best indication of energy production Indicator of turbulence Provide information on wind shear Wind Vane Wind rose Micro siting Temp Sensor Identify icing events Air density Data Loggers

  28. TVA Monitoring Activities 50 meter met tower

  29. Anemometer Loan Program

  30. Measured vs Truewind Wind Speeds (m/s)(.23 m/s average difference)

  31. Factors Affecting Wind • Elevation • Obstructions • Surface Roughness • Perpendicular Ridges • Time of day • Time of year

  32. Elevation & Wind Velocity

  33. Season and Time of Day • Higher winds found late in the evening and early morning • Higher winds seen during the winter

  34. Wind Micrositing Where to put it

  35. Step 1: What do you want to do?

  36. Step 2: Resource Assessment • Average annual wind speed at the proposed hub height is critical • Wind maps • Existing data • Extrapolate wind speed from a lower height to hub height • Measure • Anemometer, wind vane, temp, logger • Flagging, interview locals

  37. Rule 1: Minimize TurbulenceRule 2: Minimum Tower Height 30’ above obstructions within 300 – 500’

  38. Tower Height Depends on Terrain

  39. Rule 3: Stay upwind of obstacles • Know the prevailing wind direction • The turbine would like a clear view in that direction

  40. Annual Frequency and Average Annual Wind Speed in Sixteen Compass Directions Potato Hill, Watauga County, NC N 35 NNW NNE 30 NW NE 25 20 15 WNW ENE 10 5 W 0 E WSW ESE SW SE SSW SSE S Wind Frequency Wind Speed

  41. The wind blows from all directions There may not be the “perfect” spot The goal is to maximize your wind resource Rule 4: Minimize Compromises

  42. Rule 5: Voltage and wire run • Think about the wire run • Higher voltage means smaller wire • Raising the system voltage gives you more flexibility in tower placement

  43. Use a kite or balloon with streamers Visualizing the Turbulence