Journal Week 4: Tuesday 9/18 • Describe what Macromolecules and Biomolecules are from using the root words you learned.
Bio-Molecules • Carbohydrates (sugars) • Proteins (made of amino acids)
Bio-Molecules • Lipids(fats) • Nucleic Acids (DNA & RNA)
Polymerization • The construction of larger compounds by joining (bonding) smaller compounds together. • Monomers=smaller compounds • Polymers=collection of smaller compounds.
How Organic Compounds are Formed and Destroyed • Dehydration Synthesis • Hydrolysis
Dehydration Synthesis • The combination of two monomers (building blocks) using enzymes and losing water.
Hydrolysis • The process of breaking down a polymer (large organic molecule) into its sub units using enzymes and water.
Carbohydrates(Sugars) • Organic compounds with a 2:1 ratio between Hydrogen and Oxygen. (CH2O) • Monosaccharides (simple sugars) C6H12O6 glucose, fructose, galactose, deoxyribose, and ribose sugar • Disaccharides (double sugars) C12H22O11 sucrose, lactose, maltose. • Polysaccharides (complex sugars) (C6H10O5)n starch, cellulose ,and glycogen
Carbohydrate Functions • Quick energy foods (glucose, sucrose, and fructose.) • Used by cells to store and release energy. • Storage=polysaccharides (starch, glycogen) • Structure (cellulose)
Lipids • A group of compounds that contain very little oxygen and are insoluble in water. • Examples: Fats, Steroids, Cholesterol, and Wax. • They are found surrounding internal organs, in each cell membrane, and clogging arteries and veins.
Saturated: No double bonds between the carbons Solid at room temperature Found mostly in animals. Unsaturated: Double bonds between some of the carbons Liquid at room temperature Found mostly in plants Main Types of Fats
Lipid Functions • High Energy food, more for long term energy. More energy than carbs! • Protects vital organs • Insulates the body • Stores food for later use
Week 4: Wednesday • Explain what the difference is between a monomer and a polymer. • Using carbohydrates as an example, give the monomer and polymer for this macromolecule
Protein • Proteins are organic compounds made up of smaller units called amino acids. • Approximately 20 known amino acids. • Each amino acid contains an NH2 or amino group and a CO2H or carboxyl group • Di/Poly Peptide Bonds
Protein Functions • Movement: Makes up muscle tissue • Transport: Carries oxygen in organisms (hemoglobin). • Immunity: Helps fight off foreign invaders (antibodies). • Enzymes: Speed up chemical reactions (amylase) • Are catalysts. Not used up. • Energy source • Cell movement
Nucleic Acids • These are chemical compounds made up of smaller units called nucleotides. • Examples are: DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (Ribonucleic acid).
DNA Double Helix ( twisted ladder) Contains the bases A, T, C, & G Contains the code for the bodies proteins RNA Single strand Contains the bases A, U, C, & G Carries the code for a protein, and transfers amino acids to the ribosomes. Nucleic Acid Comparison
Clicker Quiz • 1) Which of the following correctly lists the traits of DNA and RNA? • A) DNA: Single stranded, ATCG • B) RNA: Single stranded, ATGC • C) DNA: Double stranded, ATCG • D) RNA: Single Stranded, ATGC • 2) Which of the following is not a function of lipids? • A) Long term energy storage • B) Insulates Body • C) Protects Organs • D) Low Energy Food Source • 3) Dehydration synthesis: • A) Creates polymers by removing a water molecule • B) Creates monomers by adding a water molecule • C) Creates Monomers by adding a water molecule
Clicker Quiz Cont. • 4) Hydrolysis: • A) Breaks down polymers by removing a water molecule • B) Breaks down monomers by removing a water molecule • C) Breaks down monomers by adding a water molecule • D) Breaks down polymers by adding a water molecule • 5) Which of the following is not a chemical sugar compound? • A) C6H12O6 • B) C12H22O12 • C) C12H22011 • D) CH20