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Children and Young Athletes

Children and Young Athletes

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Children and Young Athletes

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  1. Children and Young Athletes

  2. Medical Conditions • Asthma 1. What is asthma? A respiratory disease that causes the airways to narrow, thereby restricting airflow 2. What factors do I need to consider when coaching an asthmatic? - Be educated about asthma, avoid the trigger factors where possible, be aware of environmental factors and have an asthma management plan in place. - Include gradual warm ups and warm downs - Ensure athletes use medication before exercise if appropriate 3. What are the signs and symptoms of asthma? - Wheezing, shortness of breath and coughing spasms 4. What should I do if a young athlete is experiencing and asthma attack? - Sit them down and reassure them - Give 4 puffs from reliever puffer, wait 4 minutes and give another 4 puffs, if no improvement call an ambulance

  3. Medical Conditions • Diabetes 1. What is diabetes - A disorder caused by decreased production of insulin or a decreased ability to use insulin effectively 2. What factors do I need to consider when coaching a diabetic - Be educated, be able to recognise symptoms and have a management plan - Encourage exercise as it has an important role in management - Organise practice and competition in a way that allows pre-game meals and supplementation throughout sessions 3. What are signs of a diabetic episode - The athlete may recognise the onset of an attack or may collapse or lapse into unconsciousness 4. What are the first aid procedures - If suffering from hypoglycaemia, glucose in the form of lollies or drink. - Seek medical treatment

  4. Medical Conditions • Epilepsy 1. What is epilepsy? - Is characterized by seizures resulting from disruption to brain function 2. What factors do I need to consider when coaching an athlete with epilepsy? - Have a management plan - Keep from activities where the possibility of a seizure would expose the child to danger e.g. scuba diving, unsupervised swimming, rock climbing 3. What are the signs and symptoms of epilepsy? - Drowsiness, confusion , loss of consciousness, rigidity of muscles 4. What are the first aid procedures? - Don’t restrain the person - Remove any objects that may cause injury - If seizure lasts longer then 10 minutes seek medical treatment

  5. Overuse Injuries 1. What are overuse injuries? - Injuries that are caused by excessive training, repetitive movement or incorrect technique 2. What factors do I need to consider, to avoid causing overuse injuries in young athletes? - avoid overtraining, avoid repetitive type movements or, ensure correct training technique 3. What are the signs and symptoms of overuse injuries? - Pain, swelling and tenderness 4. What are the first aid procedures for overuse injuries? - Rest, ice treatment and medical assistance - ensure correct technique to prevent recurrence - Maintain fitness while injury is rested - encourage treatment by a doctor who may use anti-inflammatory medication

  6. Overuse Injuries - Damage of growth plates • These injuries occur in children and adolescents. • The growth plate, also known as the epiphyseal plate, is the area of growing tissue near the ends of the long bones in children and adolescents. If this plate is cracked it can cause the bone to fuse over prematurely and stop bone growth • Growth plate injuries can be caused by an acute event, such as a fall or a blow to the body, they are also caused from overuse.

  7. Thermoregulation • Thermoregulation is the process that regulates and maintains the body’s temperature at 37 degrees Celsius. • An awareness of thermoregulation is even more important for young athletes because they: • Produce more heat than adults do when they exercise • Don’t have the developed temperature regulation systems of an adult • Have less perception of the need to rest and hydrate • Have less blood volume • Have smaller sweat glands • Have a lower haemoglobin concentration • Have a lower cardiac output • Acclimatise to extreme temperatures slower than adults What measures can coaches take to address thermoregulation in young athletes? • Consider weather condition when scheduling training and competition • Encourage athlete to wear appropriate clothing • Structure training session and remind athletes to keep hydrate pre, during and post exercise • Be vigilant for warning signs of heat stress e.g. headache, nausea, dizziness

  8. Resistance training for Children and Young Athletes • The appropriateness of resistance training for children depends on several factors. The child’s training base, ability to learn new techniques, their stage of growth and development, the available equipment and the quality of supervision all determine what type of resistance training best suits the athlete. Resistance training for pre-adolescents usually focuses on using the player’s own body weight to develop strength. These exercises are safe, require no equipment and the correct techniques are widely known. Once a strength base is established and athletes display the cognitive ability necessary to begin resistance training using weights, the following rules apply: • Correct breathing and safe lifting techniques must be learnt • Appropriate warm up and cool down are essential • Balance between muscle groups must be maintained • The progressive overload principle is applied but progression should be conservative, especially in the early stages • Low resistance with higher repetitions (minimum 15) are compulsory ( no max lifts) • Supervision is essential

  9. Resistance training for Children and Young Athletes • Activity • Nine year old • Focus on skill and fitness through a resistance program. • Exercises should be those where the athlete lifts their own body weight. Eg. Push-ups • Exercises on machines should be avoided • Fourteen year old • Focus on skill and fitness • Correct techniques should be taught • Resistance training should be lightweight/high repetition. • Heavy weights should be avoided • Twenty-five year old • Target strength, power, bulk etc • Progressive overload and correct lifting technique should be maintained

  10. Activity • Research kanga cricket, mod-ball and nettaball • Discuss how these sports cater for the physical needs of children and young athletes in relation to what you have learnt today

  11. Activity • Complete Inquiry question pg:420 Outcomes 2