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American Football Guide

American Football Guide

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American Football Guide

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  1. A.J.​​​​NEWELL “The​​​​Football​​​​Dude” Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  2. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Author:​​AJ​​Newell Dreamworld​​Productions Copyright​​©​​2017​​3rd​​Edition BISAC:​​Sports​​&​​Recreation​​/​​Football ISBN-13:​​​978-1475144239 ISBN-10:​​​1475144237 *This​​eBook​​is​​free​​so​​share​​it​​with​​whomever you​​like​​as​​long​​as​​no​​changes​​are​​made​​to​​it. This Book is written by a lifelong fan and is not affiliated with the NFL in any way. Photos were retrieved through a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. None of these photographers necessarily endorse the author or this work. Any mention of NFL or Super Bowl or NFL Teams is strictly for educational purposes. This book is intended to be a reference guide for the public at large and curious parties worldwide. The NFL does not necessarily endorse this work​​or​​its​​author. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  3. Topics​​​​covered​​​​in​​​​this​​​​guide​​​​include: ● American​​football​​rules​​and​​regulations  ● American​​football​​teams  ● American​​football​​basics  ● American​​football​​101​​for​​dummies  ● History​​of​​american​​football  ● American​​football​​games,​​positions​​&​​overtime​​rules  ● How​​to​​play​​Gridiron​​football  ● American​​football​​league​​(NFL)  ● What​​is​​football  ● NFL​​positions  ● How​​many​​players​​in​​American​​football​​games  ● How​​many​​points​​is​​a​​touchdown​​&​​field​​goal  ● American​​Football​​Dictionary​​/​​Glossary​​of​​terms  ● And​​much​​more!  ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  4. PREFACE This book was written primarily with a Global audience in mind. American Football games are now being played all over the world including several NFL games a year in London. I predict the expansion of American football will continue for many years to come. I titled this book, “Yank’s Guide” because many folks in the UK and Australia often refer to Americans as “Yanks”. American Football is “Yank Football” or “Gridiron Football” to many people around the world, because if you just say ‘football’, most people outside of America will think you are talking about​​what​​we​​in​​the​​USA​​call​​‘soccer’. **Having said that, I know there are many men, women and youngsters in the United States who would​​like​​to​​learn​​more​​about​​the​​game​​so​​this​​guide​​is​​definitely​​for​​you​​too! Bottom line, whether you’re totally clueless or just want more in-depth info to fill in some holes, this guide is for you. Let’s face it, not everybody knows what a nose tackle or a shotgun formation is. Yank’s Guide provides simple explanations of how the game works and translates the various jargon and terms that are commonly used into plain English. You will learn everything quickly and easily with minimum fuss. If you read any term that you do not understand,​​just​​refer​​to​​the​​american​​football​​glossary​​inside​​this​​book​​to​​learn​​what​​it​​means. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  5. A​​​​(Very)​​​​Brief​​​​History​​​​of​​​​American​​​​Football...A​​​​(Very)​​​​Brief​​​​History​​​​of​​​​American​​​​Football... American​​football​​is​​a​​descendant​​of​​rugby​​and​​dates​​back​​to​​1869.​​Most​​notably​​the​​rule changes​​were​​instituted​​by​​Walter​​Camp,​​considered​​the​​"Father​​of​​American​​Football”. First​​​​recorded​​​​game​​​​played: November​​​​6,​​​​1869,​​​​Rutgers​​​​vs.​​​​Princeton The​​​​Object​​​​of​​​​the​​​​Game The object of the game is to outscore the other opponent. The team who has scored the most points when time has expired wins. If the score is tied when all four quarters have expired then the​​game​​goes​​into​​overtime. The​​​​Finer​​​​Points Every game starts with a kick-off. From that point the game is on and each team will try to implement a game plan and start scoring points. The offense will try to score points and the defense will try to stop the offense from scoring points. To stop the offense from advancing the ball, the defense must tackle the player with the ball by knocking him down. Defensive players must​​use​​some​​form​​of​​physical​​contact​​and​​force​​to​​bring​​the​​ball-carrier​​to​​the​​ground.​​Tacklers cannot​​kick,​​punch​​trip,​​or​​grab​​the​​face​​mask​​of​​the​​runner​​or​​they​​will​​be​​called​​for​​a​​penalty. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  6. The​​​​Field Football is played on a rectangular field 120 yards long by 53 1/3 yards wide. The boundary lines are​​called​​sidelines.​​Near​​each​​end​​of​​the​​field​​is​​a​​goal​​line;​​they​​are​​100​​yards​​apart. A scoring area called the end zone extends 10 yards beyond each goal line. At the back of each end zone are two goal posts (also called uprights) Yard lines cross the field every 5 yards, and are numbered from each goal line to the 50-yard line (midfield). Two rows of lines, known as hash marks, run parallel the side lines near the middle of the field. All plays start with the ball on or​​between​​the​​hash​​marks. Scoring To score points a team must advance the football into the opposing team's end zone. The ball can be advanced by carrying, throwing or handing it from one teammate to the other. Points can be scored in a number of ways, including carrying the ball over the goal line, throwing the ball to another​​player​​past​​the​​goal​​line​​or​​kicking​​it​​through​​the​​goal​​posts​​on​​the​​opposing​​side. A​​​​team​​​​can​​​​score​​​​points​​​​in​​​​the​​​​following​​​​ways: A touchdown (TD) is worth 6 points. It is scored when a player runs the ball into or catches a pass in his opponent's end zone. After a touchdown, the scoring team attempts an extra point conversion. The ball is placed at the 2-yard line. The team can kick the ball through the goal posts for 1 point, or run or pass it into the end zone for 2 points (a two-point conversion). A field goal (3 points) is scored by kicking the ball through the goal posts. A safety (2 points) A safety is scored by the defense when the offensive player in possession of the ball is forced back into his own​​end​​zone​​and​​is​​tackled​​there. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  7. Moving​​​​the​​​​Ball Each team must have 11 players on the field at a time. The offense has four attempts, called downs, to advance the ball 10 yards towards their opponent's end zone. Before each down, each team​​chooses​​a​​play​​that​​the​​players​​are​​to​​follow​​on​​a​​down. When the offense gains 10 yards, it achieves a first down, which means the team has another set of four downs to gain yet another 10 yards or score with. If the offense fails to gain a first down (10 yards) after 4 downs, it loses possession of the ball. Often a defense will stop an offense for a loss. This denotes that the offense was pushed back beyond the original line of scrimmage for negative yardage. In this case the offense will have to recoup the negative yards in addition to the ten yards to gain a first down. Except at the beginning of halves and after scores, the ball is always put into play by a snap. Offensive players line up facing defensive players at the line of scrimmage (the position on the field where the play begins). One offensive player, the center, then​​passes​​(or​​"snaps")​​the​​ball​​between​​his​​legs​​to​​the​​quarterback. Each half begins with a kickoff. Teams also kick off after scoring touchdowns and field goals. The​​other​​team's​​kick​​returner​​tries​​to​​catch​​the​​ball​​and​​advance​​it​​as​​far​​as​​possible.​​Where​​the player is stopped is the point where the offense will begin its drive, or series of offensive plays. If the kick returner catches the ball in his own end zone, the player can either run with the ball, or elect for a touchback by kneeling in the end zone, in which case the receiving team then starts its offensive​​drive​​from​​its​​own​​20-yard​​line. Players​​​​can​​​​advance​​​​the​​​​ball​​​​in​​​​the​​​​following​​​​ways: By running with the ball, also known as rushing, or by throwing the ball to a teammate, known as passing. The offense can throw the ball forward only once on a play and only from behind the line of scrimmage. The ball can be thrown, pitched, or tossed sideways or backwards at any time during​​a​​play​​(lateral). A​​​​down​​​​ends,​​​​and​​​​the​​​​ball​​​​becomes​​​​dead,​​​​after​​​​any​​​​of​​​​the​​​​following: ● The​​player​​with​​the​​ball​​is​​forced​​to​​the​​ground​​(tackled) ● A​​forward​​pass​​flies​​out​​of​​bounds​​or​​touches​​the​​ground​​before​​it​​is​​caught ● The​​ball​​or​​the​​player​​with​​the​​ball​​goes​​out​​of​​bounds ● A​​team​​scores ● Officials​​blow​​a​​whistle​​to​​notify​​all​​players​​that​​the​​down​​is​​over. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  8. Strategy Each team has a playbook with hundreds of plays. Some plays are very safe and likely to get only a few yards. Other plays have the potential for long gains but at a greater risk of a loss of yardage or a turnover. Generally speaking, running plays are less risky than passing plays. However, there are relatively safe passing plays and risky running plays. To fool the other team, some passing plays are designed to resemble running plays and vice versa (trick play, play action). Many hours of preparation and strategy, including watching the tape by both players and coaches,​​go​​into​​the​​days​​between​​football​​games. Turning​​​​the​​​​ball​​​​over The​​offense​​maintains​​possession​​of​​the​​ball​​unless​​one​​of​​the​​following​​things​​happens: 1.) The offense fails to get a first down— i.e., they fail to move the ball forward at least 10 yards in​​four​​downs. 2.) The offense scores a touchdown or field goal. The team that scored then kicks the ball to the other​​team​​via​​a​​kickoff 3.)​​The​​offense​​punts​​the​​ball 4.) When a defensive player catches a forward pass it is called an interception, and the player who makes the interception can run with the ball until the player is tackled or forced out of Bounds. 5.) An offensive player drops the ball (fumbles) and a defensive player picks it up. As with interceptions,​​a​​player​​recovering​​a​​fumble​​can​​run​​with​​the​​ball​​until​​tackled​​or​​forced​​out​​of bounds.​​Lost​​fumbles​​and​​interceptions​​are​​together​​known​​as​​turnovers. 6.) The offensive team misses a field goal attempt. The defensive team gets the ball at the spot of the​​kick. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  9. Time:​​​​Quarters​​​​and​​​​Halves Each football game is broken down into segments called quarters. There are four quarters to each football game, and each quarter is 15 minutes in length. A quarter always lasts longer than 15 actual minutes (real time) due to timeouts, TV commercials, and injuries on the field. The 15 minutes on the clock is referred to as game time, and is kept track of via the game clock. The average NFL football game will usually last between 3-4 hours (real time). A half is two quarters in length and there are two halves in one game, 1st half and 2nd half. After the conclusion of the 1st half there is an intermission period called half-time. Half-time is 12 minutes in length (game clock​​time). Pre-game Before the game begins the National Anthem is performed, followed by a coin toss at mid-field to decide who will receive the ball first on the kickoff. Representatives from each team will gather at midfield with the referee who administers the toss. One of the representative players (usually the team captain) will call ―heads or ―tails while the coin is in the air. The side of the coin that lands face up will determine who will receive the ball first. The team who loses the coin toss gets to choose which end zone they would like to receive the football. A team will usually choose to receive the ball first if they win the toss, however sometimes a team will choose to kick off first instead. The rationale behind that decision is that whoever kicks the ball first gets to get the ball kicked to them at the start of the third quarter, which is the end of halftime. On the TV side of things, the announcers and analysts give game reports, conduct interviews and make predictions​​in​​the​​pre-game​​segment. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  10. Timeouts A time-out is a stoppage of the game clock. Each team gets 3 timeouts per half. A timeout will usually be called when a team needs to strategize, but it can be called for a variety of reasons, such​​as​​stopping​​the​​clock​​so​​field​​goal​​can​​be​​kicked​​in​​the​​last​​seconds​​of​​the​​game. Half-Time Halftime​​is​​the​​middle​​point​​of​​a​​game​​where​​players​​leave​​the​​field​​and​​go​​to​​their​​respective locker-rooms​​to​​regroup,​​rest,​​and​​refine​​their​​plans​​for​​the​​second-half​​of​​the​​game. Over-time Overtime​​is​​triggered​​if​​the​​score​​is​​tied​​at​​the​​end​​of​​regulation​​(after​​all​​4​​quarters​​have expired).​​Overtime​​is​​15​​minutes​​in​​duration,​​but​​will​​end​​when​​a​​team​​scores.​​The​​first​​team who​​scores​​wins​​and​​the​​game​​is​​over.​​This​​is​​called​​―sudden​​death. **In college, the overtime period works differently. Each team will have a chance to respond to an​​opponent’s​​score,​​and​​there​​is​​no​​kickoff-​​the​​ball​​is​​automatically​​placed​​on​​the 35​​yard​​line​​of​​the​​defender’s​​territory. Refs​​​​&​​​​Penalties Referees (or refs) are the people on the field who wear the striped black and white uniforms. They​​serve​​the​​very​​important​​role​​of​​enforcing​​the​​rules​​of​​the​​game​​by​​calling​​penalties​​against a player when the rules of the game are violated. When an infraction (violation) of the rules occurs,​​a​​yellow​​flag​​is​​thrown​​and​​a​​penalty​​is​​called. Penalties If a penalty occurs during a play, an official throws a yellow flag near to where the foul was committed. When the play ends, the team that did not commit the penalty has the option of either accepting​​the​​penalty​​or​​accepting​​the​​result​​of​​the​​play​​without​​the​​penalty. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  11. Common​​​​Penalties ● False​​start:​​An​​offensive​​player​​illegally​​moves​​after​​lining​​up​​for​​the​​snap. ● Off-sides:​​A​​defensive​​player​​is​​on​​the​​wrong​​side​​of​​the​​ball​​at​​the​​start​​of​​a​​play. ● Holding:​​Illegally​​grasping​​or​​pulling​​an​​opponent​​other​​than​​the​​ball-carrier. ● Pass​​interference:​​Contacting​​an​​opponent​​to​​prevent​​him​​from​​catching​​a​​forward​​pass. ● Delay​​of​​game:​​Failing​​to​​begin​​a​​new​​play​​after​​a​​certain​​time ● Face​​mask:​​Grasping​​or​​touching​​the​​face​​mask​​of​​another​​player Offense The​​Offensive​​unit​​consists​​of: ● Offensive​​line​​(guards,​​center) ● Receivers​​(wide​​receivers,​​tight​​ends) ● Running​​backs​​(tailbacks,​​fullbacks) Offensive line, (G - Guard, C – Center) OL/G protects the passer and clear the way for runners by​​blocking​​members​​of​​the​​defense.​​Center​​snaps​​the​​ball. Quarterback (QB) Receives the snap on most plays. Hand or toss ball to a running back, throw it to​​a​​receiver​​or​​run​​with​​the​​ball. Running backs (RB) Line up behind or beside the QB and specialize in running with the ball. They​​also​​block,​​catch​​passes​​and,​​on​​rare​​occasions,​​pass​​the​​ball​​to​​others. Wide​​receivers​​(WR)​​Specialize​​in​​catching​​passes,​​and​​occasionally​​block​​downfield. Tight Ends (TE) Either play like wide receivers (catch passes) or like offensive linemen (protect the​​QB​​or​​create​​spaces​​for​​runners). Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  12. Defense The​​Defensive​​unit​​consists​​of: ● Defensive​​line​​(defensive​​ends,​​tackles) ● Linebackers ● Defensive​​backs​​(cornerbacks,​​safeties) DL – (DE -D Ends, NT -Nose Tackle, T- Tackles) Line up directly across from the offensive line. Attempt to tackle the running backs before they can gain yardage or the quarterback before the player​​can​​throw​​a​​pass. Defensive Backs (S-Safeties, CB-Cornerbacks) Cover the receivers and try to stop pass completions.​​Occasionally​​rush​​the​​quarterback. Linebackers (LB) Line up between the defensive line and defensive backs and rush the quarterback​​or​​cover​​potential​​receivers,​​assist​​in​​tackles​​all​​over​​the​​field. Special​​​​Teams The Special Teams unit consists of: Kicking team (kicker, punter, place-holder, long-snapper) Return specialists (punt return specialists, kick return specialists) Coverage Specialists (all blockers​​and​​defenders​​in​​kicking​​or​​punting​​situations). Punter​​(P)​​Punts​​the​​ball​​to​​opposing​​team Kicker​​(K)​​Kicks​​off​​to​​opposing​​team​​and​​attempt​​field​​goals​​and​​extra​​points Special Teams Unit - The unit of players who handle kicking situations are known as special teams​​players. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  13. Conferences​​​​and​​​​Divisions There are 32 teams in the National Football League. The League is divided into two categories called Conferences: the AFC and the NFC. The AFC stands for the American Football Conference, the NFC stands for the National Football Conference. There are 16 teams in each conference. Each​​conference​​is​​subdivided​​into​​divisions​​that​​kind​​of​​represent​​certain​​regions​​of​​the​​country. I say kind of because some divisions contain teams that are not in the same geographic region. NFC North division for instance has a concentration of teams in it that are all located in the Northern​​United​​States. The NFC East division is more spread out though. It contains a team like the New York Giants and the Dallas Cowboys, which are obviously not in the same geographic region. The NFL reshuffled the divisions a few years back in order to make each division more geographically significant, but there are still a few teams that remain spread apart like that. Within each division are the actual NFL teams that represent their city or region. Each division contains 4 teams. The best two teams from each conference play in the Super Bowl. The winner of the Super Bowl is the​​champion​​in​​the​​NFL​​for​​that​​year. Team​​​​Objectives The number one objective of an NFL team is to be a successful franchise. This is accomplished by entertaining fans, expanding the fan base, through ticket and merchandise sales, corporate sponsorships and television revenues. Additional objectives are to win as many football games as possible, to get into the Playoffs, to go to and win the Super Bowl. By succeeding in these areas, a​​team​​will​​automatically​​fulfill​​its​​number​​one​​objective​​of​​running​​a​​successful​​business. Team​​​​Identities The logo and mascot of an NFL team is usually something aggressive and menacing. The desired result is an image of toughness to reflect on the football team. The “Care Bears” wouldn’t be a good mascot choice for an NFL team. Cuteness or softness is to be avoided at all costs. Even the cardinal on the Arizona Cardinals helmet looks like a mean little bugger who could beak your eye out if he wanted to. Football is a rough and brutal sport and the chosen logos reflect this. A team like the New Orleans Saints has an attractive Fleur-De-Lis symbol, yet that symbol was often used in battle during the middle-ages in Europe. Each team has a trademark color scheme which is displayed on the uniforms, merchandise and stadium decor. Team colors usually remain the​​same​​over​​the​​years,​​but​​in​​some​​cases​​(the​​Buccaneers​​for​​example)​​a​​team​​will​​completely overhaul​​its​​color​​scheme​​and​​uniform​​design. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  14. Team​​​​History Each team has a unique history- the year it was founded, the cities it has been in, wins and losses, playoff appearances, Super Bowl appearances, Super Bowl wins. The history of each team varies widely. Some teams who were successful in the past are no longer so, and vice versa. Some teams have always been poor, and some teams have always thrived. Some teams are relatively new and some are very old. A new NFL team is called an expansion team. The number of NFL teams the league has now (32) will likely remain the same however, because adding another team would create a strain on the talent pool of quality players coming into the NFL. There is a limited supply of elite football players coming out of college each year. The NFL wants every team​​to​​be staffed with high quality professional football players because it is simply more entertaining to watch. Also, adding another team would create a lopsided league with one conference and division having one more team than the other. If anything, teams will just move to other cities in the​​future​​if​​they​​desire​​to​​break​​into​​a​​new​​market​​for​​whatever​​reason. Home​​​​Field Each team has a designated stadium or dome where its home games are played, and is called the team’s home field. The stadium often has a corporate sponsor attached to it, (for instance, Gillette Stadium) and seats between 60,000 and 85,000 people. The home field is either within the city limits of the team or just outside city limits in the suburbs. When a game is played on a team’s home field, they are said to have a home field advantage due to the familiarity with the field itself, and because the crowd is cheering for the home team and loudly opposed to the visiting​​team. The louder the crowd noise, the harder it will be for the offense to run plays. The quarterback will have difficulty calling out plays to his offense because the noise is greater than his audible play-calling can possibly get, and his teammates will have difficulty hearing him as well. Crowd noise also excites the home team’s defense- in essence giving them more energy to stop the offensive​​drive​​or​​to​​create​​a​​turnover. The Super Bowl is played in one pre-selected NFL stadium each year. The selection is made years in advance by the Super Bowl selection committee. Obviously, the Super Bowl will create huge​​revenue​​and​​recognition​​for​​the​​selected​​city. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  15. Personnel NFL​​team​​personnel​​consists​​of: ● Owner ● General​​Manager​​(GM) ● Head​​Coach ● Coaching​​staff ● Players ● Trainers ● Cheerleading​​squad​​(for​​some,​​not​​all​​teams) The owner owns the team and cuts the checks. The GM is selected by the owner to make administrative and personnel decisions, including selection of the head coach and overseeing contract negotiations with players and coaches. Basically, the GM is responsible for doling out the money that the owner is willing to pay and also for protecting the owner’s interests via contractual agreements. In some cases a head coach will also be designated as the team’s GM by the​​owner. Not​​mentioned​​above​​are​​sports​​agents.​​Agents​​represent​​the​​players​​and​​coaches​​and​​are​​the individuals who spell out the terms of a contract by directly negotiating salary requirements with team​​management. The Head Coach is the sovereign leader of the football team. In military terms he would be the general who leads the troops into battle. The Head Coach is given control of the team by the general manager and will decide the direction a team will go on many different levels. He is the main strategist, decision-maker and play-caller. The head coach does have help however. His coaching staff consists of several specialized coaches for each position on the field- quarterbacks coach,​​running​​backs​​coach,​​receivers​​coach,​​etc. Offensive and defensive coordinators are also members of the coaching staff and are very important strategists the head coach relies on both during a game and in the preparation of the game plan. It is common for a really good offensive or defensive coordinator to eventually become​​a​​head​​coach​​himself. Trainers are responsible for conditioning and care of the athletes on and off the field. They are nutritionists, fitness/weight-lifting/conditioning experts, team physicians, physical therapists and athletic apparel coordinators. Players can lose a lot of money for being injured or out of shape, and a team can lose its ability to win if the players are unable to perform at 100% capacity. For this​​reason,​​a​​small​​army​​of​​professionals​​are​​devoted​​to​​taking​​care​​of​​every​​single​​player. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  16. Players Each team is comprised of 53 players, which is called the active roster. NFL players are all members of a union called the National Football League Players Association (NFLPA). There are three types of players: offensive, defensive and special teams. With very rare exception, almost every NFL player will come to the NFL after playing football in college. A normal college career lasts 4-5 years, but an exceptionally talented player can come out of college early after 2-3 years, declaring himself eligible for the NFL draft. Sometimes this is to a player’s advantage when you consider the money he stands to earn. Injuries are very common in football. If he gets injured in his senior year of college he may lose out on millions of dollars or may not even be drafted at all. Others opt to remain in college for the full duration until graduation. In the majority of cases this is the best path for a player to take who has NFL aspirations. College is where​​the​​player​​will​​perfect​​his​​craft​​before​​turning​​pro. Uniforms Pro​​players​​wear​​uniform​​numbers​​based​​on​​the​​position​​they​​play. ● Quarterbacks,​​kickers​​and​​punters,​​and​​other​​specialists:​​1-19 ● Wide​​receivers:​​10-19,​​80-89 ● Running​​backs​​and​​defensive​​backs:​​20-49 ● Offensive​​linemen:​​50-79 ● Linebackers:​​50-59​​and​​90-99 ● Defensive​​linemen:​​60-79​​and​​90-99 ● Tight​​ends:​​80-89,​​or​​40-49​​if​​all​​are​​taken Playmakers There are certain players who are recognized for their extraordinary abilities on the football field on both offense and defense. Every team has them. They are called playmakers. Playmakers are rainmakers, candy-men, the money-makers...they just make things happen. I define playmaker as a player who makes big plays on a consistent basis and who is capable of changing a game into a positive direction for his team through his unique abilities alone. Every single player in the NFL is already the best of the best just for making it into the league at all, because most college football players will simply not make it to the pros. Yet each team has about 2 or 3 players (sometimes more, sometimes less) that can make eye- opening, eyebrow-raising, jaw-dropping plays​​week​​in​​and​​week​​out. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  17. Annual​​​​NFL​​​​Awards ● Vince​​Lombardi​​Trophy ● Lamar​​Hunt​​Trophy ● George​​S.​​Halas​​Trophy ● Most​​Valuable​​Player ● Coach​​of​​the​​Year ● Offensive​​Player​​of​​the​​Year ● Defensive​​Player​​of​​the​​Year ● Offensive​​Rookie​​of​​the​​Year ● Defensive​​Rookie​​of​​the​​Year ● Super​​Bowl​​MVP ● NFL​​Comeback​​Player​​of​​the​​Year ● Walter​​Payton​​Man​​of​​the​​Year​​Award ● Pro​​Bowl​​MVP What​​​​about​​​​us? Ah yes, the fans. We make this whole show continue with the money we spend on the games, the merch, the time we spend watching it on the tube, and by the amount of money our fanatics spend buying game face paint. The games in turn provide us with a pleasant weekly escape from reality​​and​​an​​opportunity​​to​​spend​​$120​​on​​food,​​beer​​and​​parking. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  18. NFL​​​​Networks Television networks that have contracts with the NFL to broadcast their football games. FOX, NBC, CBS, ABC, ESPN, and the NFL Network are the networks who broadcast the games at this​​time. Season​​​​Structure Pre-season is 3-5 games that are played between late July and Early September during the training camp period. Although there are a lot of similarities to regular season games, the preseason games do not count. They are there for NFL teams to evaluate new personnel (free agents & draft picks) and to prepare the players and coaches for the rigors of regular season. I think its worth mentioning that pre-season wins and losses are not indicative of the quality or non-quality of a football team. Coaches are leery of starters getting injured and lost for the regular season, so it is common for non-starters to play the majority of time in pre-season games. Injuries are inevitable- a byproduct of all the brutal pounding that happens on the field, and so a delicate balance must be exercised. Every player needs to get reps, clear the cobwebs and get into game situations in order to be truly ready for the first game of the regular season, yet on the other hand you don’t want any of your key players out for the season. Great lengths are taken to avoid​​injuries​​but​​they​​will​​happen​​anyway. Training​​​​Camp Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  19. Preseason and Training Camp go hand in hand. It’s common for a team to hold training camp in a retreat-style fashion in another city and state. This is usually done to minimize distractions and to promote team bonding. There is a huge emphasis on conditioning (specifically weight training and cardio) and mastering the playbook in camp. During training camp many players are trying to just make the roster and avoid being cut. Those that are in danger of being cut are said to be on the bubble. Cuts are unavoidable however, and a team will intentionally bring in many more players​​than​​it​​will​​actually​​keep​​for​​the​​regular​​season. Regular​​​​Season The regular season is 17 weeks long. Each team plays 16 games (one game a week) called a schedule, and has one week off for rest and recuperation. The week off is called a bye, and is predetermined before the regular season begins. The schedule includes the matchups, (teams who are playing each other) and the dates and times the games will be played. There are 8 home games​​and​​8​​away​​games. Division​​​​Games Each team will play an opponent within its own division a total of two times during the regular season, once at home and once away. Let’s take the Jacksonville Jaguars as an example, who are in the AFC South division. The Jaguars will play the Texans, Colts and Titans twice in one season for a total of 6 games, and vice versa. The Jaguars’ other 10 opponents will consist of 4 NFC​​teams​​and​​6​​AFC​​teams​​from​​around​​the​​league.​​The​​same​​model​​applies​​to​​every​​team,​​the only difference being an NFC team will play 6 NFC teams and 4 AFC teams outside its division. Division games are the most important, followed by conference games. The team with the most division​​wins​​will​​automatically​​go​​to​​the​​playoffs​​to​​represent​​its​​division​​and​​win the​​title​​of​​division​​champion. Post​​​​Season The​​post-season​​takes​​place​​after​​the​​regular​​season​​ends​​and​​the​​playoffs​​begin.​​The​​goal​​of every​​NFL​​team​​is​​to​​first​​make​​the​​playoffs​​and​​then​​make​​it​​to,​​and​​hopefully​​win​​the​​Super Bowl.​​Only​​12​​of​​the​​32​​teams​​will​​make​​it​​into​​the​​playoffs,​​(6​​teams​​from​​each​​conference)​​and only​​2​​of​​the​​32​​teams​​will​​play​​in​​the​​Super​​Bowl. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  20. Playoffs Referred to as the Road to the Super Bowl, the playoffs are a series of games a team must play and win in order to play in the Super Bowl game. To get there a team must first earn a playoff berth (acceptance to the playoffs). Once a team loses in the playoffs they are eliminated from contention. Hopefully this is not too confusing, but to earn a playoff berth a team must either make it in as a wildcard or a division leader. There will be a total of 8 division leaders (one from each NFL division) and 4 wildcard teams in the playoffs. The teams are matched up in a playoff bracket. The match-ups that take place in the bracket are determined by a team’s seed (rank). There are 6 seeds in the AFC playoff bracket and 6 seeds in the NFC playoff bracket. The seeds are based primarily on the win and loss records of each team. The number one and number two seed from each conference will not play in the first round of the playoffs and are awarded a bye. They​​will​​each​​play​​the​​winners​​of​​the​​first​​round​​wildcard​​games. Wildcard​​​​Teams Two wild card teams will make the playoffs from each conference. A wildcard team is a team that was just good enough to make it into the playoffs. They were not the best team in their own division, but they have a better record than other non-division winners in their conference. Although rare, a wildcard team can win all their playoff games and make it to the Super Bowl. The Steelers did just that in 2005, winning it all. As the saying goes, the postseason is a whole new​​ballgame-​​if​​a​​team​​can​​get​​on​​a​​winning​​streak,​​they​​could​​go​​all​​the​​way. Super​​​​Bowl The Super Bowl is the Super Bowl of all events. It is watched by nearly half of U.S. television households and is also televised in over 150 other countries. The event is a household name that describes the grandest of sporting events from both a popularity standpoint and in its overall economic impact. The first Super Bowl game was played on January 15, 1967. The Super Bowl is one of the most-watched U.S. television broadcasts of the year, attracting many companies to spend millions of dollars on commercials. In addition, many popular singers and musicians perform during the Super Bowl's pre-game and halftime ceremonies. It is the second-largest U.S. food consumption day, following Thanksgiving. The Super Bowl uses Roman numerals to Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  21. identify each game, rather than the year it was held. The game is held in one NFL city each year. The chosen site of the Super Bowl is chosen by the Super Bowl selection committee, usually 3 to 5 years in advance. Cities compete to host the game in a selection bidding process. The team who wins the Super Bowl is awarded the Lombardi Trophy, and each player will get a Super Bowl​​ring​​and​​a​​sizable​​bonus. Off-season Off-season​​describes​​the​​period​​of​​time​​when​​a​​football​​team​​has​​finished​​playing​​football​​for the year. It is the cycle of preparation and processes a team goes through to get ready for the next NFL season. If a team does not make it to the playoffs the off-season begins for them as soon as the 17 week regular season ends. The major events that occur during the off-season: Pro Bowl, Free agency, Personnel Moves, NFL Combine, preparation for the NFL Draft, Draft Day and Minicamp. Pro​​​​Bowl The Pro Bowl is a game where the best players in the NFL meet. The players who are voted into the Pro Bowl consider it a very important resume booster and honor to be there. The game takes place​​one​​week​​after​​the​​Super​​Bowl​​in​​Hawaii​​and​​is​​light-hearted​​in​​nature. The​​best​​NFC​​players​​compete​​against​​the​​best​​AFC​​players​​for​​that​​year.​​The​​NFC​​team​​wears blue​​and​​the​​AFC​​wears​​red.​​Each​​player​​wears​​the​​helmet​​of​​the​​team​​they​​represent​​and​​play for​​during​​the​​regular​​season. Free​​​​Agency After the season concludes, free agent acquisitions and coaching changes are the norm. If the head​​coach​​is​​not​​fired,​​someone​​on​​the​​coaching​​staff​​usually​​will​​be,​​or​​they​​will​​take​​a job on another team somewhere, so they will need to be replaced. Free agents (players who are not under contract) will shop their services around to other teams and try to negotiate a situation they are pleased with. For the teams, free agents provide a valuable opportunity for them to improve themselves outside of the draft. Often a team will be weak in a certain position such as linebacker for example. A savvy general manager will know what free agent linebackers are available on the market and the free agent will be contacted and invited in for a tryout. No doubt about it, free agent acquisitions can be very significant in the success or failure of a team trying to​​improve​​itself. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  22. As far as coaching changes go, the NFL is a sink-or-swim business. The NFL could be jokingly referred to as ―Not For Long for coaches. If a team does not live up to the expectations of the fans, the media, or team management, somebody has to be the scapegoat. Someone is going to get fired. A firing could be completely justified however and may be the key to success for a ball-club. Different coaches have different philosophies that may or may not be compatible with the particular football players who are on that team. It is essential for a coach to win over his players (gain respect) and have them buy into the system he wishes to implement. If they don’t, mutiny​​is​​the​​likely​​result. NFL​​​​Combine The combine is for NFL teams to evaluate potential NFL players coming out of college. Various physical and intellectual tests are used to evaluate players, and a rating is assigned to them. Among the physical tests are the 40 yard dash, bench press, and vertical leap measurement. Also given is the Wonderlic exam, an intelligence test used by NFL teams to gauge each player’s learning acumen. This information is taken into consideration by team scouts and then used to assess​​a​​player’s​​draft​​value. Draft​​​​Day NFL teams invest millions of dollars annually and enlist armies of scouts to comb the nation in a search for draft prospects. The NFL draft is the system NFL teams use to pick football players coming out of college. There are 7 rounds to the draft. A round is the same thing as the opportunity for each team to make a selection. All things being equal, each team will have 7 draft selections to add to its team each year. This is not the norm however. It is customary for teams to trade draft picks and make all kinds of maneuvers before and during the draft. Sometimes a team wants to move into a better position to draft a player they want, and sometimes a deal was made the previous year and they are forced to relinquish their draft pick on a​​certain​​round​​to​​another​​team.​​There​​are​​many​​variations​​that​​can​​occur. Usually the first round selection is the most potent and highest paid player a team will select for that year. A team usually expects that its first rounder should make an instant impact on the field as a rookie player. Strong expectations exist for players being drafted into the 2nd and 3rd rounds also, and then they begin to dwindle. It is thought that the best players who are available would have been selected already by the end of the third round. Without question there are exceptions to this rule of thumb though. A first rounder could end up being a complete bust, and a​​7th rounder​​could​​end​​up​​being​​a​​phenomenal​​player​​and​​a​​surprise​​sleeper. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  23. Much hinges on the scouting department of a team in how accurately they have assessed a player’s potential. A really good scout even knows who the best players are coming out of high school and will follow their careers all the way into the pros. If a player is not one out of the possible 255 selected by a team on draft day, he can still shop his services around as an undrafted free​​agent. Mini​​​​Camp Held​​in​​Spring,​​the​​team​​will​​gather​​to​​prep​​for​​the​​upcoming​​season​​and​​outline​​specific​​team, player​​and​​conditioning​​objectives. NFL​​​​TEAMS Buffalo​​​​Bills Division:​​AFC​​East Founded:​​1959 Location:​​Buffalo,​​New​​York Colors:​​Dark​​Navy,​​Red,​​Royal,​​Nickel,​​and​​White Mascot:​​The​​franchise​​name​​comes​​from​​the​​legendary​​western​​hunter​​and​​performer Buffalo​​Bill. Miami​​​​Dolphins Division:​​AFC​​East Founded:​​1966 Location:​​Miami,​​Florida Colors:​​Aqua​​Green,​​Coral​​Orange,​​Navy​​Blue,​​and​​White Mascot:​​Bottle-nosed​​Dolphin New​​​​England​​​​Patriots Division:​​AFC​​East Founded:​​1960 Location:​​Foxboro,​​Massachusetts​​(near​​Boston) Colors:​​Nautical​​Blue,​​New​​Century​​Silver,​​Red​​and​​White Mascot:​​Patriots-​​The​​original​​American​​Settlers​​from​​the​​colonial​​era. New​​​​York​​​​Jets Division:​​AFC​​East Founded:​​1960 Location:​​East​​Rutherford,​​New​​Jersey​​(Just​​outside​​NYC) Colors:​​Green​​and​​White Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  24. Mascot:​​A​​Futuristic​​Jet Baltimore​​​​Ravens Division:​​AFC​​North Founded:​​1996 Location:​​Baltimore,​​Maryland Colors:​​Purple,​​Black​​and​​Gold Mascot:​​Raven-​​A​​large​​scavenger​​bird​​having​​black​​plumage​​and​​a​​croaking​​cry. Cincinnati​​​​Bengals Division:​​AFC​​North Founded:​​1968 Location:​​Cincinnati,​​Ohio Colors:​​Black,​​Orange​​and​​White Mascot:​​Bengal​​-​​A​​fierce​​tiger Cleveland​​​​Browns Division:​​AFC​​North Founded:​​1946 Location:​​Cleveland,​​Ohio Colors:​​Seal​​Brown,​​Orange​​and​​White Mascot: A fan contest was conducted in 1946 to determine the name of the team, and the name "Browns" was selected. (Possibly being named after its coach at the time, Paul Brown) The coach was uncomfortable with the idea of having the team named after him, and stated publicly that the new team was named after boxing champion Joe Louis, who was known then as the "Brown​​Bomber." Pittsburgh​​​​Steelers Division:​​AFC​​North Founded:​​1933 Location:​​Pittsburgh,​​Pennsylvania Colors:​​Black,​​White​​and​​School-bus​​Yellow Mascot:​​The​​team​​was​​renamed​​the​​―Steelers​​in​​1941​​after​​the​​city's​​prominent​​steel​​industry​​to reflect​​the​​blue-collar​​work​​ethic​​of​​many​​Pittsburgh​​fans Houston​​​​Texans Division:​​AFC​​South Founded:​​2002 Location:​​Houston,​​Texas Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  25. Colors:​​Deep​​Steel​​Blue,​​Battle​​Red,​​and​​Liberty​​White Mascot:​​Texans​​represent​​the​​spirit​​of​​the​​people​​of​​Texas.​​People​​who​​live​​in​​Texas​​are​​called Texans. Indianapolis​​​​Colts Division:​​AFC​​South Founded:​​1953 Location:​​Indianapolis,​​Indiana Colors:​​Speed​​Blue​​and​​White Mascot:​​Colt​​-​​A​​young​​male​​horse Jacksonville​​​​Jaguars Division:​​AFC​​South Founded:​​1996 Location:​​Jacksonville,​​Florida Colors:​​Teal,​​Black,​​and​​Gold Mascot:​​Jaguar:​​a​​large​​spotted​​feline​​of​​tropical​​America​​similar​​to​​the​​leopard Tennessee​​​​Titans Division:​​AFC​​South Founded:​​1960 Location:​​Nashville,​​Tennessee Colors:​​Navy,​​Titans​​Blue,​​White,​​and​​Red Mascot:​​Titans​​-​​originated​​from​​Greek​​mythology​​denoting​​something​​of​​enormous​​strength, size​​and​​power Denver​​​​Broncos Division:​​AFC​​West Founded:​​1960 Location:​​Denver,​​Colorado Colors:​​Navy​​Blue,​​Orange,​​and​​White Mascot:​​Bronco​​-​​A​​wild​​horse​​of​​western​​North​​America Kansas​​​​City​​​​Chiefs Division:​​AFC​​West Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  26. Founded:​​1960 Location:​​Kansas​​City,​​Missouri Colors:​​Red,​​Gold​​and​​White Mascot:​​Chief​​-​​a​​leader​​of​​an​​Indian​​tribe,​​the​​logo​​on​​the​​helmet​​is​​in​​the​​shape​​of​​an arrowhead Oakland​​​​Raiders​​​​(Soon​​​​to​​​​be​​​​Las​​​​Vegas) Division:​​AFC​​West Founded:​​1960 Location:​​Oakland,​​California Colors:​​Silver​​&​​Black Mascot:​​Raider-​​A​​commando​​specially​​trained​​to​​participate​​in​​a​​surprise​​attack. Los​​​​Angeles​​​​Chargers Division:​​AFC​​West Founded:​​1960 Location:​​Los​​Angeles,​​California Colors:​​Navy​​Blue,​​Powder​​blue,​​White​​and​​Gold Mascot:​​Lightning​​Bolt Dallas​​​​Cowboys Division:​​NFC​​East Founded:​​1960 Location:​​Irving,​​Texas​​(suburb​​of​​Dallas) Colors:​​Royal​​Blue,​​Navy​​Blue,​​Silver​​and​​White Mascot:​​Cowboy:​​a​​man​​who​​herds​​and​​tends​​cattle​​on​​a​​ranch,​​and​​who​​traditionally​​goes​​about most​​of​​his​​work​​on​​horseback.​​Logo​​on​​the​​helmet:​​Texas​​Star New​​​​York​​​​Giants Division:​​NFC​​East Founded:​​1925 Location:​​East​​Rutherford,​​New​​Jersey Colors:​​Royal​​Blue,​​Red,​​Gray​​and​​White Mascot:​​Giant-​​a​​person​​or​​thing​​of​​unusually​​great​​size,​​power,​​importance...The​​logo​​in​​the helmet​​stands​​for​​New​​York Philadelphia​​​​Eagles Division:​​NFC​​East Founded:​​1933 Location:​​Philadelphia,​​Pennsylvania Colors:​​Midnight​​Green,​​Black,​​White,​​and​​Silver Mascot:​​Eagle​​-​​Predatory​​bird​​of​​prey.​​Logo​​of​​the​​helmet:​​eagle’s​​wings. Washington​​​​Redskins Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  27. Division:​​NFC​​East Founded:​​1932 Location:​​Landover,​​Maryland Colors:​​Burgundy,​​Gold​​and​​White Mascot:​​The​​name​​"Redskins"​​was​​in​​honor​​of​​the​​head​​coach​​in​​1932​​when​​the​​team​​was located​​in​​Boston.​​(William​​Dietz,​​who​​was​​of​​part-Sioux​​descent) Chicago​​​​Bears Division:​​NFC​​North Founded:​​1919 Location:​​Chicago,​​Illinois Colors:​​Navy​​Blue,​​Orange​​and​​White Mascot:​​Bear​​-​​Mighty​​beast​​of​​the​​forest.​​The​​helmet​​logo​​has​​a​​wishbone​​C​​on​​it​​to​​represent the​​city​​of​​Chicago Detroit​​​​Lions Division:​​NFC​​North Founded:​​1930 Location:​​Detroit,​​Michigan Colors:​​Honolulu​​Blue,​​Silver,​​and​​Black Mascot:​​Lion​​-​​King​​of​​the​​Jungle Green​​​​Bay​​​​Packers Division:​​NFC​​North Founded:​​1919 Location:​​Green​​Bay,​​Wisconsin Colors:​​Dark​​Green,​​Gold,​​and​​White Mascot:​​Packers:​​The​​founder​​of​​the​​team​​(Curly​​Lambeau)​​solicited​​funds​​for​​uniforms​​from​​his employer,​​the​​Indian​​Packing​​Company​​when​​starting​​the​​team​​in​​1919.​​He​​was​​given​​$500​​for uniforms​​and​​equipment​​on​​the​​condition​​that​​the​​team​​be​​named​​for​​its sponsor.​​The​​distinctive​​letter​​G​​on​​the​​helmet​​stands​​for​​―Green​​Bay. Minnesota​​​​Vikings Division:​​NFC​​North Founded:​​1961 Location:​​Minneapolis,​​Minnesota Colors:​​Purple,​​Gold​​and​​White Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  28. Mascot:​​Viking​​-​​a​​Scandinavian​​sea-roving​​bandit.​​The​​logo​​on​​the​​helmet​​is​​a​​Viking’s​​horn. The​​other​​logo​​is​​a​​profile​​of​​a​​Viking. Atlanta​​​​Falcons Division:​​NFC​​South Founded:​​1966 Location:​​Atlanta,​​Georgia Colors:​​Black,​​Red,​​Silver,​​and​​White Mascot:​​Falcon-​​a​​predatory​​bird​​of​​prey. Carolina​​​​Panthers Division:​​NFC​​South Founded:​​1993 Location:​​Charlotte,​​North​​Carolina Colors:​​Black,​​Panther​​Blue,​​and​​Silver Mascot:​​Panther​​-​​a​​large​​predatory​​cat​​of​​North​​and​​South​​America New​​​​Orleans​​​​Saints Division:​​NFC​​South Founded:​​1967 Location:​​New​​Orleans,​​Louisiana Colors:​​Old​​Gold,​​Black,​​and​​White Mascot:​​Saint:​​a​​person​​of​​great​​holiness,​​virtue.​​The​​fleur-de-lis​​on​​the​​helmet​​is​​a​​stylised design​​of​​an​​iris​​flower​​which​​is​​used​​both​​decoratively​​and​​symbolically​​in​​the​​city​​of​​New Orleans. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  29. Tampa​​​​Bay​​​​Buccaneers Division:​​NFC​​South Founded:​​1976 Location:​​Tampa,​​Florida Colors:​​Buccaneer​​Red,​​Pewter,​​Black,​​and​​Orange Mascot:​​Buccaneer-​​Same​​as​​a​​pirate.​​The​​logo​​on​​helmet​​is​​a​​pirate​​flag​​nicknamed,​​Skulls and​​Swords Arizona​​​​Cardinals Division:​​NFC​​West Founded:​​1898​​(Oldest​​Franchise) Location:​​Glendale,​​Arizona​​(Suburb​​of​​Phoenix) Colors:​​Cardinal​​Red,​​Black,​​and​​White Mascot:​​Cardinal​​-​​A​​North​​American​​finch​​having​​a​​crested​​head,​​a​​short​​thick​​bill,​​and bright​​red​​plumage​​in​​the​​male. Los​​​​Angeles​​​​Rams Division:​​NFC​​West Founded:​​1936 Location:​​Los​​Angeles,​​CA Colors:​​New​​Century​​Gold,​​Millennium​​Blue​​and​​White Mascot:​​Ram​​-​​a​​male​​sheep​​who​​has​​horns​​used​​to​​batter​​other​​male​​rams...On​​the​​helmet are​​the​​horns​​of​​a​​male​​ram. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  30. San​​​​Francisco​​​​49ers Division:​​NFC​​West Founded:​​1946 Location:​​San​​Francisco,​​California Colors:​​Cardinal​​Red,​​Metallic​​Gold​​and​​Black Mascot:​​A​​49er​​is​​an​​old​​term​​used​​to​​describe​​the​​people​​involved​​in​​the​​California​​gold​​rush​​of 1849.​​Many​​Americans​​moved​​West​​to​​pursue​​their​​fortunes​​in​​1849,​​hoping​​to​​strike​​gold...The SF​​on​​the​​helmet​​stands​​for​​San​​Francisco. Seattle​​​​Seahawks Division:​​NFC​​West Founded:​​1976 Location:​​Seattle,​​Washington Colors:​​Pacific​​Blue,​​Navy​​Blue,​​Neon​​Green,​​White Mascot:​​Seahawk​​-​​a​​fictional​​bird​​based​​on​​Northwest​​American​​tribal​​art. Glossary A ACL- (Anterior Cruciate Ligament) Often you’ll hear that an injured player has a ―torn ACL. This is a common knee injury that requires surgery. The torn ligament must be entirely removed, and​​a​​new​​ACL​​must​​be​​reconstructed​​using​​other​​healthy​​tissue Agent- the individual who represents a player or coach in financial negotiations such as contract negotiation​​or​​endorsement​​deals Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  31. All-Pro-​​A​​player​​who​​has​​gone​​to​​the​​Pro​​Bowl​​at​​some​​point​​in​​his​​career Armchair quarterback- A term used to describe a home viewer that is opinionated on some aspect​​of​​the​​football​​game. Arthroscopic Surgery- A common surgery injured players undergo; examination of the interior of a joint, such as the knee, using a type of endoscope that is inserted into the joint through a small incision. Artificial turf- A playing surface used in dome stadiums as well as some outdoor stadiums. There are many degrees of artificial turf surface quality. Generally speaking, it plays faster than natural grass, but players are more injury prone on it. Most of the newer turf technologies aim to simulate grass surfaces as closely as possible, with some even containing rubber dirt mixed in with​​the​​artificial​​grass.​​The​​feel​​of​​it​​is​​kind​​of​​like​​a​​doormat. Audible-​​a​​play​​called​​by​​the​​quarterback​​at​​the​​line​​of​​scrimmage​​to​​change​​the​​play​​that​​was called​​in​​the​​huddle Away games- Games that are played in opposing team stadiums in other cities as opposed to playing​​in​​one’s​​own​​home​​field B Bad​​Call​​–​​the​​perception​​that​​a​​call​​made​​on​​the​​field​​by​​a​​referee​​is​​incorrect. Backup-​​Second​​string​​players​​who​​are​​there​​in​​case​​a​​starting​​player​​gets​​injured Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  32. Backfield- The group of offensive players who line up behind the line of scrimmage...The area behind the offensive linemen...Example: The quarterback and running backs line up in the backfield. Ball control offense- a conservative offensive approach where running the football and passing for short yardage are utilized. If successful it will take a lot of time off the clock (is time consuming)​​and​​fatigues​​an​​opposing​​defense. Ball Hawk- describes a defensive player who is aggressive in getting to the ball carrier and making​​a​​tackle​​or​​breaking​​up​​a​​pass​​play​​to​​an​​intended​​receiver. Berth-​​when​​a​​team​​gets​​into​​the​​playoffs​​they​​are​​said​​to​​have​​earned​​a​​playoff​​berth Black out- When a football game is not sold-out, the NFL automatically stops the TV broadcast from being shown in the local viewing area. If the game is a sell-out the black-out is said to be lifted​​and​​the​​game​​will​​be​​shown​​on​​TV​​locally. Blitz – An aggressive defensive formation where the emphasis is placed on rushing to the quarterback​​to​​sack​​him​​or​​to​​disrupt​​his​​passing​​attempt​​by​​making​​him​​hurry​​his​​throw. Block- A block is bulldoze like maneuver where a player will collide with another player head on. There are rules as to what constitutes a legal block on the field, but generally all the action happens in the front parts of the upper-body. A block can take place in many situations, and there are many players on the field at all times who are busy blocking. The more common blocks are used to: 1.) protect the quarterback from getting sacked, 2.) to lead block for a running back or a receiver​​3.)​​Block​​on​​a​​special​​teams​​play. Block in the back- A penalty that is assessed for hitting another player from behind. A block must​​be​​done​​to​​the​​side​​of​​the​​player’s​​body​​(like​​a​​shoulder)​​or​​to​​the​​front. Blocked kick- A player breaks through or jumps above a line of blockers and disrupts a field goal​​by​​blocking​​it​​with​​his​​body. Blocked​​punt-​​A​​player​​breaks​​through​​a​​line​​of​​blockers​​and​​disrupts​​a​​punt​​by​​blocking​​it​​with his​​body. Bowl games- Traditional college football sporting events. Bowl games take place after the college football season ends, usually matching up the best college teams from each conference to play each other. Teams that participate in Bowl games are selected through the BCS, earning a Bowl​​bid.​​Bowl​​games​​create​​tremendous​​revenue​​and​​publicity​​for​​the​​participating​​schools. Bracket-​​the​​way​​teams​​are​​matched​​up​​in​​the​​playoffs Bye- when a team is either scheduled off during one week of the regular season, or when a team has​​a​​week​​off​​for​​the​​first​​round​​of​​the​​playoffs Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  33. C Cadence- before the snap occurs a cadence is called out by the quarterback. He yells out loud so everyone can hear the play he is calling. The cadence yelled out in code words that only the offensive players can understand. Often the quarterback will try to make defense commit an off-side penalty before the snap by fooling them with his cadence- in essence, mixing up when he​​calls​​for​​the​​snap. Call- a determination made by an official on the field; a play choice made by a coach on a series of​​downs. Call on the field stands- A statement made by a referee in regards to a challenged call. Means the original call made was correct, and it also means the coach who challenged the call will lose a time-out. Call on the field is overturned- When an official says this, it is because the instant replay video clearly shows that the call made on the field was incorrect. For a call to be overturned however, there must be irrefutable evidence that the official made a mistake. In other words it has to be visually obvious, without a doubt. If, when viewing the instant replay the camera angle is such that the official has some doubt, it is said to be inconclusive evidence and therefore insufficient to overturn (reverse) the call. Calls do get overturned on a fairly regular basis because it is not always possible for the ref to be in the ideal position to view each and every play. Many times the​​camera​​will​​catch​​things​​the​​official​​simply​​cannot​​see. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  34. Calling for a measurement- A request made by a Head Coach or an Official to see if a first down was achieved on an offensive play. Sometimes it is too close to tell with a quick visual glance if a first down was achieved on a play. So a measurement is taken with an instrument called a first down​​marker. Center- The center’s job is to work in tandem with the quarterback by snapping the ball at the quarterback’s request. After snapping the ball he must immediately block oncoming defensive players. The center waits for the quarterback to give him the verbal signal or tap to snap the football. The instant the center snaps the ball, the play has started. Is also member of the Offensive​​Line.​​The​​Center​​snaps​​the​​ball​​to​​the​​QB Challenge- When a coach disagrees with a call made on the field he may challenge it by throwing a red flag. A coach is limited by how many challenges he may make in a game, and will lose a time-out if he loses the challenge, so he must use it wisely. Often a coach will be prompted to challenge a call by a member of his coaching staff that has access to instant replay. The coach cannot challenge a call in the last two minutes of each half. In the last two minutes of the 2nd & 4th Quarter, a challenge must be initiated and reviewed by the Replay Booth. When a call is challenged, the referee goes to the sideline to view the instant replay for himself before making​​a​​determination​​(decision). Challenging the call- Refers to a challenge made by either the coach or the replay booth. A coach may verbally challenge several calls made by an official during a game, but he only gets to throw the​​red​​flag​​one​​time​​per​​half. Cleats- Specialized shoes a player will wear in order to get more traction (grip) on the playing field.​​There​​are​​small​​spikes​​on​​the​​bottoms​​(soles)​​of​​the​​shoe Clipping-​​When​​a​​player​​throws​​his​​body​​across​​the​​back​​of​​an​​opponent’s​​leg​​or​​hits​​him​​from the​​back​​below​​the​​waist,​​a​​penalty​​is​​called. Coach-​​(see​​head​​coach) Coach of the year- An honor bestowed on a head coach who has done a fantastic job with the direction his team has taken. Usually is awarded to a coach who turns around a losing team into a winning​​team​​upon​​his​​arrival.​​Is​​awarded​​to​​only​​one​​NFL​​coach,​​once​​a​​year. Coaching staff- Supporting staff to the head coach. In addition to the Head coach there are several specialized coaches for each position on the field- Quarterback coach, running back coach,​​receiver​​coach​​etc. Coast​​to​​coast-​​Running​​from​​one​​end​​zone​​to​​another,​​the​​full​​length​​of​​the​​field,​​and​​scoring a​​touchdown. College Football- Many of the same football rules in the pros apply to college as well, but there are a few differences. A receiver has to have two feet in-bounds when receiving the ball whereas Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  35. in college a player need only have one foot in- bounds. And when a penalty is assessed on a player in the pros, his number is disclosed over the loud speaker. In college this does not happen. Also in college, the paying of players is illegal, including endorsement deals or receiving extra money​​from​​the​​school​​for​​living​​expenses. Color analyst- a color analyst is a television announcer who complements the play-by-play announcer​​by​​adding​​commentary​​in​​between​​plays. Coin toss- Representatives from each team gather in the middle of the field after the national anthem and right before the kickoff for the toss. Determines which team will receive the ball by a simple ―heads or tails verbal selection made by a designated player while the coin is tossed in the air. If a team ―wins the toss they get to choose whether they would like to receive the ball or kick the ball to the opposing team. The other team then gets to decide which side of the field they would​​like​​to​​receive​​the​​ball. Combine- A place where potential NFL players are evaluated and rated for their abilities during the off-season. This information is taken into consideration by team scouts and used to evaluate a player’s​​draft​​value.​​Various​​physical​​and​​intellectual​​tests​​are​​used​​to​​evaluate​​players. Community relations- Most NFL teams have non-profit organizations they are partnered within their area. At certain times of the year some players will volunteer time to assist these organizations​​in​​reaching​​out​​to​​the​​community​​at​​large. Completion- when a pass is thrown and caught by a receiver the pass is said to be a completion. For​​a​​completion​​to​​occur​​the​​receiver​​must​​have​​the​​ball​​for​​at​​least​​a​​count​​of​​three. Camaraderie- The friendly nature of professional football players coming together to play an honest​​game. Conditioning-​​A​​way​​to​​physically​​and​​mentally​​prepare​​players​​for​​the​​rigors​​of​​the​​long​​NFL season. Conditioning happens year round for most players, and some have specific conditioning requirements​​outlined​​in​​their​​contract,​​such​​as​​body​​weight​​restrictions. Conference- The NFL is split and grouped into two conferences: NFC and AFC. There are 16 teams in each conference. The best team in each conference will play each other in the Super Bowl. Conference​​record-​​The​​measurement​​of​​wins​​and​​losses​​in​​a​​team’s​​given​​conference. Contention-​​striving​​to​​win​​in​​competition,​​specifically​​the​​playoffs. Contract negotiation – When a player, an agent and a football organization are in the process of spelling​​out​​the​​specific​​terms​​of​​the​​salary​​the​​player​​will​​earn. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  36. Cornerback (CB)- The defensive player who is there to break-up or intercept the pass. Covers receivers as they run down field and tackles or assists in tackling an offensive player who is in the backfield. In general, cornerbacks are swift and very athletic, but are not the biggest players on​​the​​field. Cover-​​to​​cover​​someone​​means​​to​​defend​​the​​player​​closely,​​to​​stay​​aware​​of​​where​​he​​is​​on the​​field​​at​​all​​times. Cover​​Two-​​A​​zone-style​​defensive​​formation Creating​​a​​turnover-​​when​​a​​defense​​or​​special​​teams​​unit​​causes​​a​​fumble​​or​​an​​interception​​to happen Crossing the plane- To score a touchdown, the nose of the football must cross the goal-line. If a player is struggling to get into the end-zone and manages to simply extend the football past the goal-line, a touchdown is scored even if the player’s entire body is not in the end-zone. There is an imaginary invisible line called the plane that runs from left to right from one orange cone to the other on each side of the goal line. The line judge watches intently to see if the player did indeed​​cross​​the​​plane​​with​​the​​ball. Cut​​–​​there​​are​​two​​meanings:​​to​​release​​a​​player​​from​​the​​team​​and​​―making​​a​​cut‖​​(see ―making​​a​​cut). D Dead​​Ball-​​the​​ball​​is​​not​​in​​play​​and​​the​​game​​clock​​has​​stopped-​​no​​action​​may​​commence. Decibel​​level-​​The​​level​​of​​volume​​created​​in​​a​​stadium​​during​​a​​game.​​Crowd​​noise​​is​​often compared​​to​​the​​noise​​created​​by​​a​​jet​​plane​​or​​a​​chainsaw. Defense-​​The​​unit​​on​​the​​field​​whose​​mission​​is​​to​​stop​​the​​offense​​from​​gaining​​positive yardage​​and​​scoring​​points. Defensive​​Back-​​The​​players​​of​​the​​defensive​​secondary,​​namely​​cornerbacks​​and​​safeties. Defensive Coordinator- the defensive coordinator is an assistant to the head coach who specializes​​in​​defensive​​strategy. Defensive End (DE)- A member of the defense who plays at each end of the defensive line. Defensive​​ends​​are​​fast,​​strong​​and​​huge.​​The​​are​​usually​​the​​players​​who​​apply​​pressure​​to the​​quarterback​​but​​they​​also​​can​​stop​​the​​run​​and​​make​​tackles​​on​​the​​field. Defensive linemen - These players line up opposite the offensive line. Their basic job is to rush the quarterback to hopefully get a sack, or to stop the run. They have to contend with massive Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  37. offensive lineman to achieve this, which is no small feat. These players are huge, very strong and athletic-​​ranging​​from​​290-320​​pounds. Delay of game- this penalty is assessed when the play clock expires (goes to zero) before an offense​​can​​snap​​the​​ball​​to​​start​​the​​play. Dime​​package​​–​​a​​popular​​Defensive​​formation Direct​​ticket-​​a​​satellite​​service​​that​​enables​​you​​watch​​every​​NFL​​game​​every​​week.​​Is​​offered through​​Direct-TV​​satellite​​company. Disciples- there are a select few coaches in the NFL past and present who are considered master-minds of the game. They possess a unique approach in the way they coach, and in their overall philosophy. A disciple is a coach who was once on the coaching staff of one of these masterminds. Division-​​Every​​NFL​​team​​is​​grouped​​into​​a​​division.​​Each​​division​​has​​four​​teams.​​NFC Divisions:​​North,​​South,​​East,​​West.​​AFC​​Divisions:​​North,​​South,​​East,​​West. Division​​record-​​Describes​​the​​wins​​and​​losses​​a​​team​​has​​within​​their​​own​​division.​​This​​is really the most important win-loss category for an NFL team because it will ultimately determine which teams will go to the playoffs and which will not. At least one team from each NFL division​​will​​go​​to​​the​​playoffs. Dome-​​An​​enclosed​​stadium​​which​​has​​no​​outdoor​​element.​​The​​game​​is​​played​​entirely​​indoors Double​​overtime-​​this​​happens​​when​​two​​teams​​have​​gone​​into​​overtime​​and​​neither​​has​​scored by​​the​​time​​the​​game​​clock​​has​​expired. Doubtful​​–​​denotes​​the​​injury​​status​​of​​a​​player.​​Doubtful​​means​​there​​is​​about​​a​​25%​​chance the​​player​​will​​play​​in​​the​​game. Down- When an offense first gets the ball, they get a fresh set of four downs: 1st down, 2nd down, 3rd down, 4th down. Each down is an allotted chance and attempt to gain positive yardage. The goal on every single down is to gain the yards necessary to get another first down and therefore another fresh set of downs. An offense can continue to stay on the field as long as it​​can​​move​​forward​​in​​this​​manner,​​or​​until​​a​​touchdown​​is​​scored. Draft- the system that is in place for NFL teams to select players out of college football- it occurs one​​time​​a​​year​​in​​the​​off-season. Draft Pick- Each team is allotted a draft selection called a pick. There are 255 draft picks in the NFL​​draft. Draft​​Day-​​The​​day​​when​​the​​NFL​​draft​​occurs Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  38. Dropped​​balls-​​passes​​that​​went​​incomplete.​​The​​ball​​was​​passed​​to​​a​​receiver,​​and​​the receiver​​was​​not​​able​​to​​maintain​​possession​​of​​the​​football. Drive-​​this​​term​​describes​​a​​current​​or​​completed​​offensive​​series. Drug suspension- a punishment doled out by the NFL to a player for the use of banned substances such as steroids or marijuana. Players are given random urine tests. A drug suspension​​carries​​a​​hefty​​fine​​and​​the​​player​​is​​forced​​to​​miss​​several​​games. Dumping Gatorade/ice water- No one knows where exactly this tradition started, but when a coach has Gatorade or ice water dumped on him it is actually a very flattering gesture of respect made by his team towards him. The coach is said to be so hot that someone has to put the fire out. E Eating up the clock- Describes a team that is taking a long time to run its plays and therefore the game clock is getting closer and closer to zero. Eating up the clock would be useful for a team that has the lead in the fourth quarter and does not want to give the other team a chance to get the ball​​back​​on​​offense​​and​​score​​points. Ejection-​​when​​a​​player​​or​​coach​​is​​ordered​​to​​leave​​the​​playing​​field​​by​​a​​ref.​​This​​usually​​will only happen if there is a grievous penalty committed by a player, like starting a fight or punching an​​official. Encroachment- When a player crosses the line of scrimmage and makes contact with an opponent​​before​​the​​ball​​is​​snapped,​​a​​penalty​​is​​called.​​Is​​similar​​to​​the​​offside​​penalty,​​the difference​​being​​that​​actual​​contact​​is​​made. Endorsement deal- a lucrative financial contract a corporation has with a certain player or team to​​represent​​their​​product​​either​​on​​the​​field​​or​​in​​a​​commercial​​advertisement. End zone- The area of the field were a touchdown is scored. There are two end zones on the football field and they are each located at opposite ends of the field, hence the term, end-zone. During a game, the ultimate goal of any offense is to get into the end-zone as many times as possible. ESPN-​​A​​channel​​devoted​​entirely​​to​​broadcasting​​and​​reporting​​on​​sporting​​events. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  39. Establishing the set up the pass- There is a common theory held in football that that in order for a passing game to be effective, the running game must be successful first. It is a valid theory,​​but​​many​​teams​​abandon​​the​​run​​and​​favor​​the​​pass​​when​​game​​situations​​become​​dire. Execution- Execution is a very important part of being a successful NFL team and player. It is simply doing one’s job and playing one’s assigned role with precision and consistency while committing few mistakes. For example, successful receivers execute well by running good routes and​​catching​​passes​​that​​are​​thrown​​to​​them. Expansion​​Team-​​A​​team​​that​​was​​added​​to​​the​​NFL Extra Point- An attempt to add 1 point after a team scores a touchdown. This is done by the field goal​​kicker,​​and​​is​​almost​​always​​successful​​due​​to​​the​​relatively​​short​​distance​​of​​the​​kick. F Facemask- a penalty assessed for grabbing the facemask of another player. This can of course cause a player much harm. There are two different kinds of facemask penalties: accidental and intentional. It is up to the referee to decide if a player grabbed the facemask on accident or if he willfully​​tried​​to​​cause​​another​​player​​harm. False start- A commonly occurring penalty assessed on the offense for moving prior to the ball being snapped. Usually is called on an offensive lineman or a tight end. All that has to happen is a small flinch by an offensive player for this to be called. Every player that is lined up on the line of scrimmage must remain absolutely motionless until the ball is snapped. The only exception is the​​quarterback​​himself​​or​​if​​a​​player,​​(such​​as​​a​​receiver)​​is​​in​​motion. Fair Catch- a signal made by a punt return specialist declaring that he will not run the ball after catching it. He calls out to the referee and the opposing special teams players that he does not wish to run the ball. Instead he will catch the ball and have it spotted at the yard line where he Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  40. catches it. The return specialist declares a fair catch by waving one arm in the air. This is the right thing to do sometimes because either the coverage is very good and he will be hit immediately after catching the ball (and possibly risk losing the ball) or the punt is difficult to catch. Fan-​​A​​person​​who​​enjoys​​watching​​the​​game Fanatic- A more extreme version of the fan; a person who cheers for his or her team with extreme​​zeal Fantasy​​football-​​See​​Chapter​​5:​​“Overtime” Favorite-​​The​​team​​who​​is​​predicted​​to​​win​​the​​game. Field-​​where​​the​​game​​is​​played.​​This​​often​​used​​term​​is​​short​​for​​football​​field. Field Correspondent- a member of the television broadcast team who conducts live interviews with players and coaches on the field and gives periodic game reports such as player injuries and weather​​conditions. Field goal- a field goal is kicked by the place-kicker and if successful, results in three points. To be successful the ball must be kicked in somewhere in between the goal-post. On a field goal play the ball is snapped to the place-holder. The place-holder holds the ball in place for the kicker while the offensive line blocks. The choice to kick a field goal is usually made when a team is in a fourth down situation and the ball is in field goal range. A team almost always will try to get points on a drive if a touchdown is not scored. The next best thing to scoring a touchdown​​is​​making​​a​​field​​goal. Field Goal range- when an offense has moved the ball to a certain point down the field, they are said​​to​​be​​in​​field​​goal​​range.​​This​​means​​a​​field​​goal​​kick​​is​​doable​​and​​likely​​to​​be​​successful. Field​​judge-​​a​​referee​​who​​monitors​​the​​backfield​​on​​any​​given​​play. Field position- The place on the field where the ball is at any given time. You’ll usually hear something like, that is really good (or bad) field position. This is all in relation to how far or close​​a​​team​​is​​to​​scoring​​a​​touchdown​​on​​the​​field. Finding the hole/the lane- When the offensive and defensive lines collide after the snap, gaps are created in between them. A running back will try to run through these gaps after getting the handoff. If successful he will run forward for positive yardage. If not, he will be tackled at or near​​the​​line​​of​​scrimmage. First Down- The first in a set of four downs. A new set of four downs automatically occurs when a first down is achieved by an offense. A first down keeps the offense moving down the field en Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  41. route to scoring a touchdown. This is also called, keeping the drive alive. Aside from scoring a touchdown,​​the​​offensive​​objective​​on​​every​​play​​is​​to​​achieve​​a​​first​​down. First and Goal- when a team is under 10 yards away from the opposing team’s end-zone. There are no more chances to achieve a first down at this point. The team will only have four chances (downs)​​to​​score,​​unless​​a​​penalty​​occurs. First and ten- When a team moves the ball past the first down marker they have achieved a first down. Whenever a team gets a first down, it is automatically reset to 1st and 10...The first out of four​​chances​​to​​gain​​ten​​yards​​to​​get​​another​​first​​down. First down marker- The first down marker is a bright orange piece of equipment that keeps track of how far an offense has to go to gain a first down on any given play. It is kept on the sidelines Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  42. at all times, and there is one on each side of the field. When a first down is achieved, the marker is automatically moved down the field ten yards from the exact spot where the ball is placed on the field at the line of scrimmage. It is the only visual reference players have on the field to know how​​far​​they​​have​​to​​go​​to​​gain​​a​​first​​down. Flea-Flicker- The flea flicker is a fun trick play to watch. The quarterback hands the ball the running back and so it looks like a running play is happening. Before the runner gets to the line of scrimmage he turns around and tosses the ball back to the quarterback and the quarterback throws​​the​​ball​​to​​a​​receiver​​who​​is​​usually​​deep​​down​​the​​field. Football​​-​​The​​ball​​used​​in​​American​​football​​has​​a​​pointed​​prolate​​spheroid​​(also​​known​​as vesica​​piscis)​​shape,​​and​​has​​a​​large​​set​​of​​stitches​​along​​one​​side. Formation- a formation is the way an offense or defense is aligned on the field just before a play begins.​​Each​​player​​is​​in​​the​​spot​​that​​the​​play​​calls​​for​​them​​to​​be​​in. Fourth and inches- You will hear this whenever a team is in a fourth down situation and is less than a yard away from achieving a first down. They must then decide whether to go for it or to punt​​the​​ball​​away. Franchise-​​another​​term​​used​​to​​describe​​an​​NFL​​team Free agent- a player who is not under contract by an NFL team. He is free to be signed and play for any team who wishes to retain his services. There are 3 types of free agents: unrestricted, restricted​​and​​un-drafted. Free​​agent​​acquisition-​​when​​a​​team​​signs​​a​​free​​agent​​to​​a​​contract​​and​​makes​​him​​a​​member​​of their​​team. Fullback- a sizable player whose primary role is to block for the running back. The fullback can receive and run the ball however and usually does get in the action at some point during the game. A big fullback may be used to bust through the line to get a tough yard or two for a first down, or to score a touchdown when close to the goal-line. Usually a big-bodied, powerhouse runner can muscle his way ahead for the needed yardage. A fullback is sometimes used as a last option for the quarterback to throw to when no other receivers are open. Fullbacks mostly line up in formation next to the running back in the backfield behind the quarterback in what is called a two​​back​​set. Fumble- occurs whenever the football is lost from a player’s grasp after first having possession of the ball for at least a count of three. When the ball is lost it is said to be a live football. A fumble has the potential to become a turnover if the opposing team recovers the ball. One rule to remember is, the ground cannot cause a fumble. If a player falls to the ground and upon hitting the ground full force the ball pops out, it is not a fumble because the ground caused the player to lose​​possession. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  43. G Game​​clock-​​the​​official​​time​​keeping​​instrument​​used​​in​​a​​football​​game. Game Plan- during the week, a team will prepare for an upcoming opponent by designing a game plan. The game plan consists of specific plays a team thinks will be most effective against the opponent they are playing. Things like the strengths and weaknesses of the other team are considered​​in​​preparation. Gang​​Tackle-​​When​​several​​defenders​​swarm​​to​​the​​ball​​carrier​​and​​bring​​him​​down Get to the Quarterback- This statement describes how important it is for a defense to apply pressure​​to​​the​​quarterback​​in​​order​​to​​disrupt​​his​​passing​​attempts Getting​​invited​​to​​the​​Dance-​​another​​way​​of​​saying​​that​​a​​team​​has​​made​​it​​into​​the​​playoffs G.M. (General Manager)- An individual appointed to run the overall operations of a football team, including administrative and personnel duties. Sometimes a club has a coach who is also the​​G.M.,​​and​​some​​clubs​​do​​not​​have​​a​​GM​​at​​all. Giveaway takeaway ratio (+/-) - This key stat measures turnovers. How many a times a team gave away the ball to the other team via an interception or fumble, and how many times the ball was​​taken​​by​​them​​via​​interception​​or​​fumble. Goal​​line-​​the​​line​​that​​sits​​at​​the​​threshold​​of​​the​​end-zone;​​The​​gateway​​to​​scoring​​a​​touchdown. Goal line stand- A grudge match on the goal line of the end zone. The defense digs in to stop the offense​​and​​the​​offense​​tries​​to​​punch​​it​​through. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  44. Goal-post- situated to the rear of the end-zone, the goal post is there for kickers to kick field goals​​and​​extra​​points​​through. Going For It- you’ll hear this phrase in fourth down situations when a team opts to pass or run the​​ball​​instead​​of​​punting​​or​​kicking​​a​​field​​goal. Going down to the wire- a game that will be won or lost in the last minutes and seconds of regulation Gridiron-​​another​​name​​for​​the​​football​​field Guard- A guard is a member of the offensive line whose job is to protect (guard) the quarterback from oncoming defensive players, and to block (see open holes) for the running backs. These men are the largest players on the field, and are usually the strongest as well. An NFL guard can range​​anywhere​​from​​300-400​​pounds. H Half- a game is divided into two halves: 1st half and 2nd half. Each half has two 15 minute quarters​​and​​so​​each​​half​​is​​30​​minutes​​of​​game​​clock​​time. Halftime- the period of time taken after the first two quarters expire. Halftime is the middle point of a game when players leave the field and go to their respective locker-rooms to regroup, rest, and refine their plans for the second-half of the game. Halftime lasts for 12 minutes of game clock​​time. Hall of fame- located in Canton, Ohio, this museum-type facility honors and memorializes NFL players and coaches who were the best of the best while they were active players. A bronze statue is created in the likeness of the player or coach with a written synopsis of his achievements. These individuals are voted in through an extremely rigorous process, and most NFL personnel will not get voted in. For a player to be considered for the Hall of Fame he must be​​inactive​​from​​the​​game​​of​​football​​for​​at​​least​​5​​years. Hail Mary- A term used to describe a very long throw down field. The ball is thrown as high and far as the quarterback can throw it and the receiver(s) will jump up in the air to catch it. This play is not usually successful because the defense disrupts the pass and the receiver from catching it. It​​is​​considered​​a​​last​​ditch​​effort​​desperation​​play. Hand-off-​​When​​the​​quarterback​​gives​​the​​ball​​to​​the​​running​​back Hash​​Mark-​​a​​line​​indicating​​how​​close​​to​​the​​sideline​​a​​football​​may​​be​​at​​the​​start​​of​​a​​play Head Coach- The individual who is the sovereign leader of the football team. In military terms he would be the general who leads the troops into battle. The Head Coach is given control of the Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  45. team and will decide the direction a team will go on many different levels. He is the main strategist, decision-maker, play-caller and personnel appointer. In many ways a football game could​​be​​seen​​as​​a​​kind​​of​​chess​​match​​between​​two​​head​​coaches. Headquarters- Where the actual offices of the team reside and usually the team’s practice facility as​​well. Helmet-​​The​​protective​​device​​players​​use​​to​​protect​​their​​heads​​from​​injury Heisman​​trophy-​​an​​award​​given​​to​​the​​best​​college​​athlete​​in​​the​​NCAA​​one​​time​​per​​year. Highlights​​–​​The​​best​​and​​most​​entertaining​​video​​clips​​from​​around​​the​​NFL Highlight reel- You may hear someone say, that play is destined to make the Highlight reel. This means that an individual player has made such an outstanding demonstration of athletic ability or coordination that it will be shown on virtually every sportscast in America for that week. His feat will​​be​​played​​over​​and​​over​​for​​all​​to​​see​​and​​appreciate. HIKE!! Or HUTT-HUTT!!: A phrase called out by the quarterback at the end of cadence; prompts​​the​​center​​to​​snap​​the​​ball​​to​​him​​and​​begin​​the​​play. Holder –the player who holds the ball in place for the kicker after receiving the snap. The holder comes​​out​​for​​the​​kicker​​on​​field​​goals​​and​​extra​​point​​attempts​​only. Holding- holding is one of the most common penalties you will see called during a game. Holding can occur on either side of the ball (offense or defense or on a special teams play). In essence, one player will hold on to another player illegally and prevent him in some way from proceeding. In offensive holding for example, an offensive lineman might try to hold on to a defensive lineman to prevent him from sacking the quarterback. That might happen if the offensive lineman got beat from the speed or move that the defender made to get past him. In defensive holding, a defender might hold onto a receiver who blows by him while running his route. The defender is holding in this case to prevent a big play from happening. There are many situations​​where​​a​​holding​​penalty​​will​​be​​called. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  46. Holdout- when a player withholds his services from a team. Usually occurs during contract negotiations. The rationale behind a holdout is that if the player is highly valued by a team, the team​​will​​have​​more​​incentive​​to​​pay​​the​​player​​what​​he​​and​​his​​agent​​feel​​he​​is​​worth. Home​​field-​​The​​place​​where​​a​​team​​plays​​half​​of​​their​​games​​in​​the​​NFL​​season-​​is​​located​​in or​​just​​outside​​the​​city​​that​​the​​team​​represents. Home-field advantage- when a game is played on a team’s Home Field, they are said to have an advantage due to the familiarity with the field itself and because the crowd is cheering for them and is loudly opposed to the visiting team. Crowd noise factors into the Home Field advantage scenario. The louder the crowd noise is, the harder the offense will have running quality plays. The quarterback will have difficulty calling out plays to his offense because the noise is greater than his audible play-calling can possibly get, and the offensive players will have difficulty hearing him. Crowd noise is also thought to psyche-up the defense- in essence giving them more energy​​to​​stop​​the​​offense​​or​​to​​create​​a​​turnover. Huddle- a gathering of players to discuss an upcoming play and to clarify what role each player will play, or how to improve. It is common for the offense and defense to huddle up on each and every​​play​​to​​strategize. Hurdle-​​Jumping​​over​​a​​defender​​or​​a​​downed​​player Hurry-​​when​​a​​quarterback​​is​​chased​​out​​of​​the​​pocket​​by​​the​​defense. Hurry-Up Offense - An offensive strategy designed to gain as much yardage as possible while running​​as​​little​​time​​off​​the​​clock​​as​​possible.​​Often​​involves​​making​​plays​​without​​a​​huddle. I Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  47. I formation- A formation that includes a fullback and tailback lined up with the fullback directly in​​front​​of​​the​​tailback Icing the kicker- when a timeout is called before a kicker attempts to kick a field goal. It is hoped that​​this​​will​​cause​​him​​to​​be​​intimidated​​and​​to​​make​​an​​error​​because​​of​​the​​mounting​​pressure If the playoffs were to start today- you’ll hear this comment by an announcer usually around the last few games of the regular season. This is just speculation about who the best teams are in each conference and how the playoff picture would look if the post season was to begin at that moment​​in​​time. Incomplete pass- if a pass is thrown from the quarterback to a receiver and the ball either misses the receiver or the receiver drops the ball, it is an incomplete pass. A receiver must have possession​​of​​the​​ball​​for​​at​​least​​three​​counts​​before​​it​​is​​ruled​​a​​completion. In motion- Often you will see a running back, receiver or tight end move around the backfield while the quarterback is in cadence. One or more players will reshuffle themselves by lining up in another spot just before the play begins. This is designed to trick or surprise the defense by confusing​​them. In the grasp- this penalty is called when a quarterback is in the grasp of a defender and about to be sacked. While going down, the quarterback tries to get rid of the ball by frantically throwing it away. This is sometimes allowed, but for the penalty to be called there must be no receiver anywhere​​near​​where​​the​​ball​​is​​thrown. Inconclusive evidence- you’ll hear this term used in regards to instant replay. The instant replay video did not provide enough visual evidence to overturn a call. In other words there are some doubts that linger even after viewing the instant replay video and so the call that was made on the field​​stands. Infraction-​​a​​violation​​of​​the​​rules Injury Report- The list of injured players a team has from week to week. It is an NFL mandate that the injury report be released and made public. The injury report is updated weekly and includes the categories of injured, doubtful, questionable, probable and likely, which describe a player’s​​status​​and​​ability​​to​​play​​in​​the​​upcoming​​game. Injured reserve- when a player gets injured and cannot play, a team can place him on injured reserve without fear of losing the player to another team. A team can keep only a limited number of players on injured reserve (IR) at any given time and there are rules about when a player can return​​to​​the​​field​​after​​being​​placed​​on​​IR. Instant​​Replay-​​a​​video​​clip​​of​​a​​play​​that​​recently​​occurred. INT-​​abbreviation​​for​​Interception Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  48. Interception-​​when​​a​​defensive​​player​​interferes​​with​​a​​pass​​by​​catching​​the​​ball​​instead​​of​​the intended​​target.​​An​​interception​​is​​also​​called​​a​​turn-over,​​because​​the​​ball​​is​​turned​​over​​to​​the team​​who​​intercepts​​it. Intentional grounding- when a quarterback throws the ball away usually to avoid getting sacked- there is no receiver close to where the ball is thrown. A QB can throw the ball away but there must be an eligible receiver close to the spot the ball is thrown. This is similar to the in the grasp penalty​​with​​the​​difference​​being​​that​​the​​quarterback​​is​​not​​in​​the​​grasp​​of​​a​​defender. Irrefutable evidence- you’ll hear this phrase used in regards to an instant replay challenge. There must be clear visual evidence from viewing instant replay for a call made on the field to be overturned. Irrefutable means it is impossible to deny or disprove. There are times when the instant replay angle is such that the visual evidence is not strong enough for the call to be overturned. J Jerseys- The uniform shirts that players wear. Each player has a number on the front and back of his jersey and his last name is printed on the back. There are two versions of the jersey- one is darker in color and one is lighter. The home team has the right to choose whether they will wear the darker or the lighter jersey. If the home team chooses to wear a dark jersey, the visiting team must wear their light jersey, and vice-versa. According to NFL rules a player’s jersey must be tucked​​in​​at​​all​​times. Juke- when a player shakes off a defender by making a quick left-to-right fake. The defender is not sure which way the offensive player is going to go and so he causes the defender to miss making​​the​​tackle. K Key Stats- game statistics that are considered to be the most important factors in a game, such as passing,​​running,​​turnovers,​​etc. Kickoff- a kickoff happens at the beginning of the game and of the second half, and after every score, whether a touchdown or field goal. The kicker places the ball on a tee, and the special teams players line up along side him for the kick. They can only run downfield after the ball is kicked Kicking​​team-​​The​​team​​that​​is​​kicking​​the​​football​​to​​the​​opposing​​team Kneeling​​the​​ball-​​kneeling​​the​​ball​​is​​used​​in​​the​​following​​situations:​​1.)​​when​​a​​player​​receives Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  49. a punt or a kickoff in the end-zone and wishes to create a touchback rather than take the chance or​​running​​the​​ball.​​2.)​​when​​an​​offense​​kneels​​the​​ball​​to​​run​​out​​the​​clock Knocking​​on​​the​​door-​​when​​an​​offense​​is​​close​​or​​has​​gotten​​close​​to​​scoring​​a​​touchdown L Last second victory- denotes that the game winning points were scored, in the last remaining seconds​​of​​regulation. Lateral- a lateral is a toss of the ball to the side or behind. It is not a forward pass. A lateral is used as a way to keep a play alive. Any player that has the ball on offense or defense can legally throw a lateral to another player from anywhere on the field, even while being tackled. The only rule​​is​​that​​the​​ball​​cannot​​be​​tossed​​or​​thrown​​forward. Lead​​blocker-​​a​​player​​who​​blocks​​for​​a​​runner,​​while​​the​​running​​back​​is​​behind​​him.​​The​​lead blocker clears the way for the running back. Often times a lead blocker will be a fullback or an offensive​​lineman. League-​​Another​​term​​used​​to​​describe​​the​​NFL Line​​–​​abbreviation​​for​​line​​of​​scrimmage;​​offensive​​and​​defensive​​linemen. Line of scrimmage- an imaginary line crossing the football field beyond which a team cannot cross until the next play has begun. Its location is based on the spot where the ball is placed after the end of the most recent play and following the assessment of any penalty yards. A line of scrimmage touches one edge of the ball where it sits on the ground prior to the snap. There are actually two lines of scrimmage at the outset of each play: one that restricts the offense and one that restricts the defense. The area between the two lines (representing the length of the ball as extended​​to​​both​​sidelines)​​is​​called​​the​​neutral​​zone. Line​​Judge-​​the​​referee​​who​​monitors​​the​​line​​of​​scrimmage​​on​​any​​given​​play. Linebacker​​(LB)-​​Linebackers​​are​​members​​of​​the​​defensive​​team​​that​​line​​up​​approximately​​five to seven yards behind the line of scrimmage, behind the defensive line. In this way they reinforce or back the line. The linebacker is often the most feared player on the defensive side of the ball and​​is​​considered​​the​​ideal​​blend​​of​​size,​​strength,​​ferocity,​​speed​​and​​overall​​athleticism. Live football- the football is said to be live when it has been fumbled and can be recovered by the​​opposing​​team​​for​​a​​turnover. Locker room- each team has an assigned locker room within the stadium during a game. It is where players get dressed and taped up and where they convene before, during and after the game. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017

  50. Logo-​​the​​icon​​or​​symbol​​used​​to​​identify​​a​​particular​​NFL​​team Lombardi Trophy- the Lombardi trophy is the ultimate prize- the reward a team receives for winning the Super Bowl. Vince Lombardi was a legendary coach who coached for the Green Bay​​Packers. Long​​Snapper-​​a​​member​​of​​the​​special​​teams​​who​​specializes​​in​​snapping​​the​​ball​​on​​punts and​​field​​goals. Lost it in the light- when you hear this statement, the player lost sight of the football while it was in mid air, traveling towards him via a pass or punt. Either the sunlight or the Stadium lights were so bright that they caused the ball to be lost momentarily. You’ll hear this sometimes as a reason​​a​​player​​was​​unable​​to​​catch​​a​​ball​​that​​was​​headed​​his​​way. Losing​​streak-​​when​​a​​team​​has​​lost​​more​​than​​one​​consecutive​​game​​in​​a​​row. M Making​​a​​cut-​​when​​a​​player​​moves​​abruptly​​to​​the​​right​​or​​left​​while​​running​​forward.​​Making a​​cut​​is​​either​​done​​to​​shake​​an​​oncoming​​defender​​or​​to​​move​​through​​an​​open​​hole​​that a​​running​​back​​has​​spotted. Making the cut - When a player has successfully made it on the 53 man active roster for that year versus​​being​​let​​go. Yanks​​Guide​​-​​The​​#1​​Guide​​to​​American​​Football Copyright​​©​​2017