Audience Key aspects that would have been chosen to appeal to the target market: • Presentation: colour, pictures, diagrams, front style and size • Language: level of difficulty, variety of vocabulary, sentence structure • Content and style • Target audiences can be characterized by: • Age • Background • Gender • Interests • Location • Beliefs
Purposes Purposes of texts include: Inform Explain Describe Argue Entertains Advise Persuade Review By identifying the purpose and audience, it will be easier to understand why certain language or presentational features have been used.
Reading between the lines • You need to not only analyse the words on the page but the: • Use of colour, fonts and images • Position or layout of particular features or information • Headlines, sub-headings, pull quotes
Selecting and using information • To support points made in your answers, you need to refer directly to the text • Any ideas you put forward must come from the text itself (interpret the meaning of the text) • Avoid long quotes. Use short, snappy and purposeful evidence.
How to quote • Quotations that are fluently ‘embedded’ into sentences are more stylish and sophisticated. • For longer quotes, place a colon at the end of your comment. Then start a new line and indent the quotation.
Perspective • Perspective means ‘attitude’ or ‘standpoint’. You can establish the view point of a well-written text by reading the first and last paragraphs and the topic sentence of each paragraph. • They should guide the reader through their argument through the careful structure of their writing. What to look for: • Emotive language • Strong first sentence clearly portraying view point • Sarcasm • Criticism • Presenting other view point (to disprove) • Sentence structure/length for effect
Reports • A report is usually written for a specific audience • The purpose of a report is to pass on specific information about a particular issue or investigation, so that others may take action using the findings of the report. • A newspaper report gives information
Formal reports • Formal reports follow a clear structure: Introduction -> explanation of the research undertaken-> summary of findings-> conclusions or points for action What to look for: • Percentages used to emphasize strength of feelings • Result summaries for readers • Solutions
Newspaper reports • Newspaper reports are normally written in an impersonal style • The writer will provide facts- opinions will often come from ‘sources’ or people whose words are being reported through direct quotation What to look for: • Emotive language which engages the reader • Quotes in headlines which can indicate bias • Summing up in last paragraph • Quotations from ‘the other side’ to balance argument
Feature articles • Feature articles provide more of a considered view or interpretation of an event or issue What to look for: • Pronouns ‘we’, ‘our’ • Strong opening sentence- shows view • Emotive language • Concluding sentence
Advertisements- presentation • If the form of the advert is an advert, the purpose will be clearly to persuade, however the target audience will need to be considered Presentational features to look for: • Use of images • Use of colour • Font style, size and colour • Use of text- layout, organisation and language • Logos , slogans, shapes • You need to show you are able to evaluate the presentational features
Advertisements Structuring your answer • Links purpose to presentation • Analyse features and their effects • Explain effect of reader • Show connection between presentational features and written text/ purpose
Leaflets • Presentational features such as sub-headings and bullet point lists are often used to break the information down into short pieces of text. The use of images and colour also helps to convey the message • Leaflets use presentational features in order to allow the information to be read very quickly • Commenting on the effect of individual language choices and layout features is necessary but it if you can demonstrate how elements of the text, use colour and image, etc. connect and work together, you will gain more marks.
Leaflets • Start by analysing the leaflet’s purpose and audience. What to look for: • Images- What do they show, how does it connect to the subject of the leaflet, does the size of the image have any significance? • Information- What information is given, where is it displayed, how is it displayed, does the font have an impact on the reader, are capital letters used for emphasis? • Colours- How does this appeal to the target market, does it help enforce the message of the leaflet, does it reinforce the company’s purpose, does it help the leaflet to achieve its purpose?
Diaries • Personal diaries are written in the first person and are informal in style. They include personal recollections. • Diaries written for publication, record events of public interest and can be more formal in style but are usually in the first person. What to look for: • Purpose to the diary entry • Opinions • Emotive language • Exaggeration
Blogs • Unlike diaries, blogs can have more colloquial language and the writer has a sense of the wider audience and the content and tone of the blog matches this, rather than being more personal and private
Biographies and autobiographies • A biography will be written in third person and an autobiography will be written in first person and organisation is normally chronological. • Biographies contain events from the person’s past • The purpose of biographical writing is usually a mixture of entertaining and informing the reader. What to look for • Imagery • Sentence structure/length for effect • Dramatic language • Language style (formal/informal)- Why e.g. colloquial language to remind the reader that it is a childhood anecdote
Travel writing • Travel writing can be factual but can also give individual interpretations of the experience • Travel writing entertains and informs the reader • Although factual in content, there will be an element of bias in travel writing What to look for: • Different language techniques that the travel writer uses to convey information to the reader • Be aware of the attitudes or feelings that the travel experience causes in the writer. • The first sentence- it usually sets the tone of the writing and can be quite dramatic.
Reading reviews • The first thing to look for in a reviews is at whether it is biased or unbiased • A review provides a description and an evaluation of an event, an object or publication. • The purpose of a review is to provide a clear overview and an evaluative judgement or recommendation. • They are written for a clear audience. What to look at: - Language and structure and how they are used to present a particular point of view
Web Page • A web page uses particular layout conventions and presentational features to help you skim and scan the page for specific information • A webpage has to be immediately appealing and accessible otherwise the reader will just skip to another site What to look for: • Images • Colours- bright colour used to highlight offers? • Live links to help find information faster • Contact details- Where are they placed, how are they presented? • Logos • Use of celebrities
Information texts • Often use sub-headings or other organisational features to guide the reader easily through the material • Its main purpose is to provide information. The language is usually impersonal, quite direct and clearly organised. • They will have a target audience
Analysing presentational features • When commenting on presentational features, you need to explain how they work with each other to create an overall effect, not just what effect they have individually.
Inference • There are a variety of ways in which language can be used to infer meaning other than the surface meaning. One technique to look for is IRONY. Irony can be created through: • Rhetorical techniques • Exaggeration and understatement • Quotations
Inference • Another technique to look for is HUMOUR. Ways to infer meaning: • Language • Structure and organisation of text • Pictures and other presentational features. • Pictures and the layout of text can imply meaning the same way that language does
Analysing language- Key features Language features to analyse • Sentence and paragraph types • Significant vocabulary • Punctuation • Imagery • Imagery and other linguistic devices • Style of language
Analysing language- Sentences • Short sentences can suggest speed or excitement e.g. He ran forward. The ball fell at his feet. He shot. • They can also indicate surprise or despair e.g. Her inspiration stopped. Her career ended. • Long sentences can indicate calm e.g. The sergeant reported that right along the river, teams of men and women were at last preparing to return to their headquarters for a much needed break. • Or they can build to a climaxe.g. The crowds gasped as the top of the mountain blew away, clouds of ash shot hundred of feet into the sky and rivers of lava, terrifying in the early daw, shot upwards, then cascaded down into the valley.
Analysing language- Paragraphs • Very short paragraphs can be used to attract the reader’s attention, to attract the reader’s attention, to pick out the main details in an article or to offer a ‘punchy’ idea. Popular newspaper articles often have short paragraphs so that they can be read more easily. • Longer paragraphs provide more detail and analysis. Articles in more serious newspapers often have longer paragraphs.
Analysing language- Significant vocabulary • The kind of vocabulary can tell you about the purpose of the text • Imperative verbs such as ‘follow’ and ‘begin’ suggest instructional or advisory writing • Connectiveslike ‘since’ and ‘because’ are typical of explanatory writing because these connectives link ideas together • Connectives such as ‘however’, ‘nevertheless’ and ‘indeed’ tend to be used in persuasive or argumentative writing where are point of view is being expressed • The kind of vocabulary can also tell you about the audience for the text. • More complex language indicates that the text is aimed at a more intelligent readership • A text containing specialist vocabulary will be aimed at those with a special interest in that area • Slang and colloquialisms could indicate a teenage target audience.
Punctuation TEENAGER ‘TORTURED TO DEATH’ The inverted commas indicate it may not have happened, but show that someone has offered that opinion Lets focus on… improving your home Ellipsis indicates that there are many things we could do. An ellipsis can also end a sentence leaving the conclusion to our imagination. HOLLY HITS OUT!! The double exclamation mark is to attract attention and suggest excitement, humour or even surprise.
Similes, metaphors, linguistic techniques and style • Look for similes, metaphors, alliteration and onomatopoeia. • Text can have a formal or informal style Stylistic techniques • Rhetoric • Emotive language • Irony (subtle mockery) • Exaggeration • Contrast • Colloquial language • Ambiguity • Examples, anecdotes or quotations • Humour • Lists
Comparing language • When comparing language, consider: • Levels of difficulty • The different tones • The different kinds of language features required for different purposes • Decide how the writer has used language to meet the needs of the form, purpose and audience. Look at: • Sentences and paragraphs • Significant vocabulary • Punctuation • Imagery and linguistic features
Comparative response- paragraph structure - The conclusion should NOT be long and should sum up your ideas whilst still focusing on the question
Connectives Comparative connectives Cause, effect, emphasising and illustrating connectives
What to expect • The whole paper is 2 hours 15 minutes long. • It is divided into 2 sections • Section A is the reading section • You will be given 3 sources in an extract book and asked to answer 4 questions using the source material • Questions 1-3 are worth 8 marks and focus on 1 f the source texts. You should spend 12 minutes answering each of these questions • Question 4 is worth 16 marks and will ask you to compare 2 of the source texts. You should spend 24 minutes answering this question
Types of questions • The questions will usually test your ability to: • Find information (Information retrieval) 8 marks • Write about presentational features 8 marks • Analyse what is being suggested or inferred 8 marks • Compare how language is used in two texts 16 marks
APPLE- General analysis of non-fiction texts A PPLE audience- who is it for? How do you know purpose- Why has is been created? What message(s) is given? presentation- Features, images, layout. How do they relate/ support the text? language-Consider vocabulary, tone, stylistic devices, phrasing used and structure of sentences. effect on audience- Has the writing achieved its purpose for the audience?
A FOREST- Language Devices to look for: A F O R E S T alliteration acts pinions repetition exaggeration and Emotive language statistics triples
CODFISH- Presentational features to look at: CODFI SH colours organisation data/ diagrams font/ Italics/ Bold images/ Pictures slogans/ catchphrases headings/sub-headings
FIFAT- How reliable and authoritative is the text Find non-fiction texts such as articles, adverts, flyers, leaflets etc. and practice using this grid to find how reliable and authoritative the text is.
What to expect • You will be asked to complete 2 non-fiction writing tasks; the first worth 16 marks and the second 24 marks • Aim to spend 25 minutes on the shorter writing task and 35 minutes on the longer task. • A clear purpose, form and audience will be given in each task, however if no audience is mentioned, then use the examiner as your audience (formal writing)
Structure and paragraphs • Start each new paragraph with a topic sentence. • The remaining sentences in the paragraph should develop the idea in more detail • Link your paragraphs using connectives to make the shift from one idea to the next smoother • Start by introducing what you intend to discuss in tour writing in a way which engages the reader. • Develop your response in the next 3 or 4 paragraphs, expanding your ideas • Sustain your view point • Keep the same style throughout • End by emphasising your view point.
Sentences • Use a mixture of sentence structures; simple, compound, complex, questions and exclamations Simple sentences • Can be used one after another to add excitement • Can be used to build tension • Can also relieve tension • A simple sentence after a series of longer sentences can pull the reader up short and make a quick but powerful point
Compound sentences Compound sentences • A compound sentence is 2 simple sentences joined together with either a semi-colon or a conjunction. Each part of the sentence could stand on its own. • The second part of a compound sentence is linked to the first part by the subject matter as well. It is used to add extra information about the first part of the sentence.
Complex Sentences Complex sentences • A complex sentence has one main clause, which contains the main point of the sentence, and at least one subordinate clause. A subordinate clause links to the main clause but cannot stand on its own as a sentence. It often starts with ‘who’ or ‘which’ e.g. The boy, who was alone at last, walked across the field that led to the farm.
Questions, commands and exclamations • Questions, commands and exclamations should be used sparingly, so that they have an impact. • They can be used very effectively in writing to argue, persuade or advice. • In a piece of writing to argue, persuade or advice, you should try to open or end the piece with a rhetorical question. • Commands are a good way of addressing the reader directly. • Exclamations show strong emotional reactions
Punctuation Commas • Used to separate a list • To add clauses or phrases • To separate a phrase that adds extra information or detail. Speech marks • Punctuation at the end of speech is placed before the final speech mark • There should be only one speaker for each paragraph
Punctuation Apostrophes • Used to show possession • To show a contraction (can’t) Colons • Used to introduce a list • Introduce an explanation e.g. “I’m sorry I didn’t show up: I had a heavy cold and my head hurt.” Semi colons • Used to indicate a short pause between 2 clauses or simple sentences that are equally important. • To separate phrases in a complicated list