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學習導向的評估 Learning Oriented Assessment PowerPoint Presentation
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學習導向的評估 Learning Oriented Assessment

學習導向的評估 Learning Oriented Assessment

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學習導向的評估 Learning Oriented Assessment

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  1. 學習導向的評估Learning Oriented Assessment 香港教育學院The Hong Kong Institute of Education Centre for Assessment Research & Development, Assessment Project 莫慕貞 Magdalena M. C. Mok HKIEd, January 2006

  2. Purpose of Sharing Today 今天的目的 1. What is Learning Oriented Assessment? 學習導向的評估 2. How to implement it through the Assessment Project? 如何在[評估計畫]實踐學習導向的評估 3. Questions & Answers

  3. 評估的目的 Purposes of Assessment

  4. 問責Accountability 學習 Learning 資歷互認Articulation 學生和學習 Learner & Learning 選拔Selection 評估的目的 Purposes of Assessment

  5. 學習導向的評估是甚麼? What is meant by Learning Oriented Assessment (LOA)?

  6. 為老師提供提供有關學生學習進度 為學生提供回饋資料,從而監察學習進度,並提升其日後學習素質的評估 為老師提供回饋,以增強老師教學效益的評估 評估乃自我主動學習不可分割的一部份。 為老師提供給予學生回饋機會 學習導向的評估 1. 為促進學習的評估 2. 作為學習的評估

  7. 1. Assessment For Learning Assessment that enables the teacher to give feedback about a student’s learning & gives feedback which informs teacher’s teaching enables students to obtain feedback for self-monitoring and self-regulation 2. Assessment As Learning Assessment as part of learning of a self-directed learner 1.為促進學習的評估 為老師提供給予學生回饋機會、及提供有關學生學習進度 為老師提供回饋,以增強老師教學效益的評估 為學生提供回饋資料,從而監察學習進度,並提升其日後學習素質的評估 2.作為學習的評估 評估乃自我主動學習不可分割的一部份。 學習導向評估 Learning Oriented Assessment

  8. 學習導向的評估: 提供回饋,增強元認知 Learning Oriented Assessment Provide feedback; Enhance Metacognition

  9. Feedback is the most crucial factor for learning (Source: Inside the Black Box by Black and Wiliam,1997) Metacognition is one of the four most important factors affecting learning (Source: American Psychological Association, 1997) 回饋乃影響學習的最重要因素 (資料來源: Black & Wiliam, 暗箱內探, 1997) 認知與元認知因素為影響學習的四個主要因素之首 (資料來源: American Psychological Association, 1997) 回饋與元認知 Feedback & Metacognition

  10. Cognitive and Metacognitive Factors Motivational and Affective Factors Developmental and Social Individual Differences 認知與元認知因素 動機和情感因素 發展和社會因素 個體差異因素 影響學習的主要因素 Key Factors Contributing to Learning Source: American Psychological Association (1997)

  11. Indicates what the learner is able to do Shows expectation of what the learner can do at that level Indicates progress Includes all domains of development Identifies areas for improvement Presented in simple and comprehensible language Timely 指出學生的能力 顯示出在該程度,期望學生能夠達到的水平、能力、或能做到的事 顯示進度 包括所有的範疇 指出應改進的地方 以簡單文字表達 適時 對學習有裨益的回饋 Feedback that Facilitate Learning Source: Adapted from Rowe, K. (2005)

  12. 學習事務 Task 學習策略 Strategy 學習事務評估 Task- Assessment 學習事務管理 Task- Management 學習策略評估 Strategy- Assessment 學習策略管理 Strategy- Management 自我評估 Self-Assessment 自我管理 Self-Management 元認知 Metacognition 學習者 Self

  13. 學習事務 Task 學習者 Self 學習策略 Strategy 評估 Assessment 管理 Management Select the most effective strategies Let’s Try!

  14. 自主學習包含那些元素? What are the elements of self-directed learning?

  15. 元認知能力 Metacognitive Skills • 傾向 / 計劃 • 執行 • 監察 / 測試 / 判辨 • 調節 / 改良 • 批判 / 反思 Sources: Brown (1987); Vernunt & Verloop (1999); Weinstein & Maer, 1986; Rozendall, Minnaert, & Boekaerts (2005) • Orienting/Planning • Executing • Monitoring/testing/diagnosing • Adjusting/correcting • Evaluating/Reflecting Sources: Brown (1987); Vernunt & Verloop (1999); Weinstein & Maer, 1986; Rozendall, Minnaert, & Boekaerts (2005)

  16. Self-Directed Learning Domains & Variables自主學習的元素 1. Prior • Academic self-confidence • Motivation • Attributions • Education Aim 7. 2nd Order Feedback • Change in self-knowledge • Cognition • Meta-cognition • Motivation 2. Plan • Goal setting • Planning 6. 1st Orider Feedback • Change in learning strategy and behaviour 3. Action 5. Outcome • Initiation • Inquisitive Mind • Information Processing • Strategic Help Seeking • (Benefits, Costs, Bahavior) • Management of Learning Env 4. Monitor • Self-monitoring Mok & Cheng, 1999

  17. 有那些學習策略 可供選擇? What are the learning strategies?

  18. 學習:選擇最佳的策略 Task: Choose the Right Strategies 14個自我主動學習策略 (Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986, 1988; Nota, Soresi, Zimmerman, 2004, p. 200) 1. 自我檢視 2. 組織與重建 3.目標及計劃 4.資料搜集 5.記錄及監察 6.改造環境 7.想象後果自我獎勵 8.溫習和記憶 9-11.求助 (同儕、師長、長輩) 12-14.檢閱記錄 (測驗、筆記、課本) 15.其他 14 self-regulated learning strategies (Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986, 1988; Nota, Soresi, Zimmerman, 2004, p. 200) 1. Self-evaluation 2. Organising and transforming 3. Goal-setting & planning 4. Seeking information 5. Keeping records & monitoring 6. Environmental structuring 7. Self-consequences 8. Rehearsing & memorizing 9-11. Seeking assistance (peers, teachers, adults) 12-14. Reviewing records (tests, notes, textbooks) 15. Other

  19. 組織與重建 Organising & Transforming • 組織: • 組合, 勾畫大綱、概要,重點提綱, 心腦圖、概念圖 • 檢視及選取適合的概念 • 加工: • 重點重寫,摘要闡述,用類比、比喻 • 建構思考和概念輪廓 • 建造內連結 • 連繫已有知識 • Organising: • Clustering, outlining, selecting the main ideas, mind mapping • examine the schema and choose what is relevant to the task • Elaboration: • paraphrase, summarise, creating analogies, use of metaphors • Build schemata • build internal connection • integrate with prior knowledge

  20. 策略:資源管理 Strategy: Resource management • 時間管理 • 能量管理 • 環境管理 • 調控工作量 • 學業求助 • 同儕學習 • 控制焦慮 • Time management • Energy management • Environment • Effort regulation • Help seeking • Peer-learning • Anxiety control

  21. CONTROL Motivational(Pintrich, 1989; Wigfield & Eccles, 2000) Task value, interest Self-ability/efficacy Attribution Emotional(Minnaert, 1999; Pintrich & Schunk, 1996; Tobias, 1985) Volition, Persistence Anxiety control Action(Boekaerts, 1997; Heckhausen, 1991; Juhl & Goschke, 1994) Effort Correction / Change 調控 動機(Pintrich, 1989; Wigfield & Eccles, 2000) 價值、興趣 自我能力、效能 歸因 情感(Minnaert, 1999; Pintrich & Schunk, 1996; Tobias, 1985) 意志、堅持 控制焦慮和緊張情緒 行動(Boekaerts, 1997; Heckhausen, 1991; Juhl & Goschke, 1994) 努力 改進、調控 自我調控 Self-regulation

  22. 為甚麼要重視自主學習? Why is self-directed learning important?

  23. Rapid changes mandated competence for self-directed learning Competent self-directed learners tend to be better academic achievers 知識急劇增長,令自主學習能力不可或缺 自主學習能力越強的學生,成績也越好 Why is Self-directed Learning important? 為甚麼要重視自主學習?

  24. 香港中學生的自我主動學習 莫慕貞鄭燕祥莫雅立 甘國臻 本研究由 RGC資助 誠心地感謝所有參與的學校

  25. The sample 研究樣本 • 14,846 位香港中學生 • 7,238 位男生,以及 7,521 位女生 • 23 所中學 • 中學 1, 2, 3, 4, 和 6 年級 • 14,846 students from Hong Kong • 7,238 males and 7,521 females • 23 secondary schools • Secondary 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6

  26. 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 2 1 1 1 4 1 The lowest achieving group最低成績組 7 3 Chinese 中文 English 英文 Math 數學 10 groups: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

  27. Failure Ability Failure Effort 失敗因能力低 成功因用對了策略 失敗因不努力 Success Strategy Failure Strategy 成功因為努力 失敗因用錯了策略 Success Ability 成功因能力高 Success Effort 歸因與學業成績Attribution & Achievement

  28. FA SS FE SE FS SA

  29. Ability Failure • Females > Males • Decreases with increasing achievement 女 Female • 把失敗歸因於能力: • 成績愈差,則愈把失敗歸因於欠缺能力 • 女性更甚於男性 男 Male • Ability Success • Females < Males • Increases with increasing achievement • 把成功歸因於能力: • 成績愈好,則愈把成功歸因於自已的能力 • 男性更甚於女性 男 Male 女 Female

  30. Effort Failure • Females = Males • No great difference across achievement groups 女 Female • 把失敗歸因於努力 • 女性和男性,有差不多的失敗努力歸因 • 成績群組方面沒有很大的差異 男 Male • Effort Success • Females > Males • Increases with increasing achievement 女 Female • 把成功歸因於努力: • 女性較男性,更傾向于用‘努力’去解釋自已的成功 • 成績好的學生,較傾向用‘努力’去解釋自已的成功 男 Male

  31. Strategy Failure • Females > Males • No great difference across achievement groups 女 Female • 把失敗歸因於欠缺策略 • 不論成績如何,女性較傾向把失敗歸因於欠缺策略 男 Male • Strategy Success • Females > Males • Increases with increasing achievement (Note Group 12) 女 Female • 把成功歸因於策略運用 • 不論成績如何,女性較傾向把成功歸因於策略運用 • 成績好的學生,較傾向用‘策略’去解釋自已的成功 男 Male

  32. 我成功,是因 為我勤力,和 用對了策略 我成功,是因 為我天智聰明 我失敗,是因 為我不夠勤力 我失敗,是因 為我蠢、我懶、和 用錯了策略

  33. 成績差 成績好 成績差 成績好 成績差 成績好 Academic Help Seeking:Costs, Benefits,Frequency學業求助:代價,利益,頻率 Costs代價 Benefits利益 Frequency頻率

  34. Costs 代價 Male 男 Female 女 Almost for all achievement groups, males saw more costs in seeking help than did females 男性較女性更介意學業求助的代價

  35. Benefits 益處 Female 女 Male 男 Almost for all achievement groups, males saw less benefit in seeking help than did females 女性較男性更認同學業求助的益處

  36. Frequency 求助 Female 女 Male 男 For all achievement groups, males reported fewer incidents in seeking help than did females 女性較男性更多學業求助

  37. 向別人請教,可以學 會一些解題的技巧 和方法,加深了對問題 的理解,提高我的成績。 還是快快請教高明吧! 向別人請教, 會被嘲笑, 又打擾他人。 還是不要問人吧!

  38. 意義 計劃 目的 更正 目標 檢視

  39. 熱愛 主動 好奇心 • 在中學階段,成績和自我主動學習有直接關係 • 女生比男生更重視學習、更覺得學習有意義、更加懂得計劃自已的學習、設定目標、自我檢視,和更正學習策略,以促進學習成效 • 男生比女生更自信 • 在好奇心、熱愛學習、主動性三方面,男女生無差異 自信

  40. The Primary Sample 小學樣本 • 1253 位小學學生 (603名男生及 615名女生) • 10間香港小學 • 每間小學邀請兩班三年級和兩班五年級同學參與 • 1253 primary pupils (603 boys and 615 girls) • From 10 Hong Kong primary schools • Each school has 2 Year-5 and 2 Year-3 classes in the study

  41. Sources of Knowledge 獲得知識的途徑 Where else can you learn other than from school? 除了上課以外,你認為還有那些途徑可以獲得知識?

  42. How useful is it? • Not useful at all  • Of some use  • Very useful • How often do you do it? • Never  • Sometimes • Always 1. Mary likes to discus with classmates and share what she learned. 2. Tom seeks help from others when met with difficulties in learing. 3. Cindy takes notes of what the teacher says in class. 4. Fanny makes notes of what she does not understand when reading. 5. John asks himself questions and tries to solve them while studying. 6. Peter sets up a timetable and studies according to the timetable. 7. Louise sets up learninggoals for herself. 8. Nicole revises what she cannot do in tests. 9. Danny thinks about the application of what she learns in real life. 10. Mike finds a quiet and undisturbed environment to study.

  43. Number of Resources Named (Free response)獲得知識的途徑

  44. Types of Resources Named (Free response)

  45. More Inclined Pupils Less Useful Strategies (Relatively) 9.Application 4.Make notes (read) 5.Self-Question 3.Take notes (class) 1.Discuss with classmates 7.Goal setting 8.Revision after test 6.Timetable 2.Seek Help 10.Environment Less Inclined Pupils More Useful Strategies (Relatively)

  46. Pupils who more frequently used the strategies Less Often Deployed Strategies (Relatively) 4.Make notes (read) 3.Take notes (class) 9.Application 5.Self-question 6.Timetable 1.Discuss with classmates 7.Goal setting 8.Revision after test 2.Seek Help 10.Environment Pupils who less frequently used the strategies More Often Deployed Strategies (Relatively)

  47. All strategies considered useful by most of the pupils 小學生認同自學策略的用處 • Relatively, the most useful strategies are: 小學生認為以下的自學策略最有用 10. 在一個清靜、沒有干擾的環境裏讀書 2. 在學習上遇到困難時,向別人尋求幫助 6. 為自己編了一個時間表,並按照時間表來溫習 • Relatively, the least useful strategies are: 小學生認為以下的自學策略比較少用處 4. 看書的時候,用筆記下自己不明白的地方 5. 在學習的時候,向自己提出一些問題,然後尋找答案 9. 學習的時候,去想想所學的東西在現實生活裏的用處

  48. Results 結果 • 知識上的差異,主要來自個人和班級(而非學校) • 知識和應用:五年級高於三年級同學 • 用處和實際應用:女生較男生多 • 越覺得有用,則用得越多 • 用處和實際上的差異,主要來自個人 (而非學校或和班級) • Knowledge: Variance at student and class levels (not school) • Knowledge & Deployment: Grade 5 more than grade 3 • Usefulness & Deployment: Girls more than boys • Deployment increased with perceived usefulness • Usefulness and deployment: All variance at student level (rather than class or school)