World History Coach Norred
History-8/2 • Get out your syllabus • Get out your 2 sheets that were given yesterday. • On the Unit 1 Organizer, define the first 5 terms on your own paper.
History-8/2 • In your notebook on a sheet of paper, put the date and write the question. Answer it to the best of your ability. • If hominids evolved into humans over the course of millions of years, how do you think humans will look a million years from now and why? List several details.
B.C.E. and C.E. B.C.E-Before Common Era (up to year 1) C.E.-Common Era (Year 1 and beyond) How many years ago was 3,000 B.C.E? What about 100 C.E.? What about 1800 C.E.? What about 3500 B.C.E?
How many years ago was the year 2300 B.C.E? • How many years ago was the year 1100? • How can someone’s life dates go backward? (ex: (b. 100-d. 44) • A man was born in 20 B.C.E and died in 20 C.E. How old was he when he died? • What century was the 1600s?
B.C. and A.D. B.C-Before Christ (born 7-2 B.C.) A.D.-Anno Domini (Latin for “Year of Our Lord”)
Centuries • Century-time span of 100 years • When talking centuries, it is always one number above • Ex:19th Century=1800s • Decade-time span of 10 years
2 Early Human Time Periods • Paleolithic Age • 2.5 million-8,000 B.C.E • AKA The Stone Age • Hominids such as Neanderthals walked the earth • Hunters and Gatherers • Neolithic Age/Revolution • 8,000 B.C.E-3,000 B.C.E • People began to grow crops (farming) • Domesticated animals • Led to the world’s 1st civilization
The 5 Characteristics of Civilization • 1. Advanced Cities • 2. Specialized Workers • 3. Complex Institutions • 4. Record Keeping • 5. Advanced Technology
Neolithic Revolution Impact • Discuss with a partner beside you or near you. • List five effects of the Neolithic Revolution (the emergence of farming). How could this impact a group of people and lead them to become a civilization?
What is History? History comes from the Greek word historia, “knowledge acquired by investigation.” History is the study of the past through written records. History began only about 5,000 years ago, when the first writings were recorded.
Pre-History The Earth formed about 4.6 billion years ago Single-celled organisms form around 3.8 billion years ago in the ocean. 230 million years ago, dinosaurs walk the Earth 3.6 million years ago, hominids begin to appear on Earth Hominids-Humans and other creatures that walk upright.
Pre-History Continued Australpithecines, the first hominids, lived during the Paleolithic Age in East Africa (4 million to 1 million B.C.E.) Other hominids began to appear. Homo Habilis- “man of skill”(2.5 million yrs. ago)-first to use tools Homo Erectus- “upright man”(1.6 million yrs. ago)-first to use advanced tools and first to migrate from Africa. They migrated to Asia and parts of Europe. First to use fire and developed the beginnings of spoken language. Neanderthals (200,000 B.C.E.-30,000 B.C.E.)-Found in the Neander Valley in Germany. They had well-developed muscles and thick bones. Cro-Magnon-About 40,000 years ago in Europe. Ancestors of modern humans. Superior hunting tools and strategies. Advanced language and art.
Scientific Clues Archaeologists-specially trained scientists who work like detectives to uncover the story of prehistoric peoples They excavate and study traces of early settlements Artifacts-human-made objects (tools or jewels) Anthropologists-scientists who study culture Paleontologists-scientists who study fossils Culture-a people’s unique way of life
The Stone AgeThe invention of tools, mastery over fire, and the development of language Paleolithic Age-Also known as the Old Stone Age-2.5 million to 8000 B.C.E-people of this age were nomads who wandered from place to place looking for sources of food. This people were known as hunter-gatherers. Mesolithic Age-Middle Stone Age-Right after the last Ice Age-10,000 B.C.E. Neolithic Age-The New Stone Age-8000 B.C.E. to around 2500 B.C.E. People learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops, and raise animals.
Stone Age Cave Paintings • People in the Stone Age became more artistic as famous caves in mostly Europe (France and Spain) and Africa started to appear. • The oldest ones date back to 35,000 years ago. • Show images of hunting and daily activities. • There are different reasons for the paintings in these caves. (Pg. 12-13)
The beginning of agriculture about 10,000 years ago after the last Ice Age. As temperatures got warmer, climate became more suitable for farming. For thousands of years before agriculture, people were nomadic hunters and gatherers who lived in bands of 25-70 people. People of the time gathered plants and may have scattered seeds near a regular campsite. When crops grew, they learned how to become farmers Slash and Burn Farming-cut trees or grasses and burned them to clear a field. The ashes fertilized the soil. Planted crops for a year or two and then moved to another area of land. After a few years, the trees and grasses would grow back and the process started all over again. Neolithic Revolution
Domestication of Animals • As gatherers contributed to agriculture, hunters probably contributed to taming animals. • This took a long time as hunters may have herded animals into caves to be slaughtered. • Then, it was not difficult to herd the animals into human-made enclosures. • Pastoral nomads would herd these animals to new pastures and watering places. • People who still herd animals such as cattle, goats, sheep, and camels as part of their daily lives are called pastoralists.
Farming Develops in Other Regions • Africa along the Nile-Wheat and barley • China along the Yellow River-millet and rice • Mexico and Central America-corn, beans, and squash • Peru-tomatoes and sweet potatoes.
Villages Begin to Appear • Catal Huyuk-An agricultural village in south-central Turkey that reached its peak about 8,000 years ago. It covered about 32 acres.
Irrigation Systems • Villages started to implement these to produce larger harvests. The more food produced, the more populations grew. • As a result, new jobs were created for others • Pottery, woven cloth, and metal objects • Trade was established as the wheel and sail were invented • Social classes and religion develop as well.
Civilization • Advanced Cities • Specialized workers • Artisans, farmers, merchants, etc. • Complex Institutions • Soaring populations made a system of ruling (Government) necessary • Government is an example of an institution-a long lasting pattern of organization in a community-Religion and Economy are other examples. • Religion developed as temples were built. (Polytheism)
Civilization Continued • Record Keeping • Way of keeping up with records such as tax collections, laws, and storage of grain-calendars, debts and payments • 3000 B.C.E.-Sumerians develop Cuneiform-1st known writing system. Egyptians developed hieroglyphics. • Scribes wrote with wedged shaped utencils (stylus)-shapes and symbols • Advanced Technology • Bronze Age-Tools were being made out of bronze (tools and weapons) • Plates, bowls • Ox and Plow for soil
Ur in Sumer • Earliest cities in Sumer • Banks of the Euphrates River (South Iraq) • Agricultural economy • Roads • Irrigation systems • Thriving Trade • Temples called ziggurats were built-Pyramid-shaped monuments made out of mud-brick- “mountain of god”- Sacrifices were made at the top.
Primary and Secondary Sources • Primary Source-provide first-hand testimony or direct evidence concerning a topic under investigation. They are characterized by their content, regardless of their format. • Secondary Source-A document or recording that relates or discusses information originally presented elsewhere.