Basic concepts in nursing science Li Xiaohan School of Nursing China Medical University
Introduction • Human being • Environment • Health • Nursing
Introduction Definition of nursing science Four basic concepts that affect and determine the nursing practice
Human being Environment Health Nursing
Human being The human being is a uniform whole Basic needs of human being Growth and development of human being Self-concept of human being
1. The human being is a uniform whole (1) Concept of a whole (2) The uniform whole of human being (3) The human being is an open system (4) The scope of human being in nursing
The uniform whole of human being Physiological Psychological Social Spiritual Cultural
The human being is a open system Closed system Open system
The scope of human being in nursing Individual Family Community Society
Basic goal of human being To maintain the balance of organism Balance among subsystems of organism Balance between organism and its environment (internal and external environment)
2. Basic needs of human being （1）Definition of basic needs （2）Types of basic needs （3）Characteristics of basic needs （4）Factors that affect meeting needs （5）The theory related to basic needs
(1) Definition of basic needs Need Basic needs of human being
(2) Types of basic needs Physiological needs Socialneeds Affective needs Cognitive needs Spiritual needs
(3) Characteristics of basic needs 1）Approximately same basic needs 2）The importance of each need for each person is different 3）All the basic needs are interconnected and interactive
(4) Factors that affect meeting needs Physiological factors Emotionalfactors Knowledgeandintellectfactors Socialfactors
(4) Factors that affect meeting needs Environmental factors Individualfactors Culturalfactors
(5) The theory related to basic needs —Maslow’s hierarchy theory of Basic needs for Human Being
Maslow’s theory (a) Basic content (b) Basisforneed’shierarchy (c) Generalrules (d) Significancetonursing
Basic content Physiological needs Safetyneeds Loveandbelongingnessneeds Self-esteemneeds Needsforself-actualization
Basis for need’s hierarchy • Importance of needs Sequenceofneed’sappearance
Significance to nursing • a) To identify client’s unmet needs • b) To realizeandunderstandclient’swords • andbehaviors • c) To predictclient’sunspokenneeds
Significance to nursing • d) To collectclient’sdatacomprehensively • e) To putclient’snursingproblemsin • adequate order
3. Growth and development of human being (1) Definition of growth and development (2)Contentofgrowthanddevelopment (3)Basicprinciplesofgrowthanddevelopment (4)Factorsthataffectgrowthanddevelopment
Definition of growth and development Growth Development Maturation
Growth: • a increase on amount • in physiological aspect
Development: Definition of development A changing process in physical and psychological aspect along with age’s increase and interaction between individual and its environment.
Characteristicsofdevelopment: • in order • predicted • persistent • as aresultof learning and a symbol of maturation • holistic(physiological, psychological, social )
Maturation: Narrow definition Generalized definition
Narrow definition the process of the growth in physiological aspect and the potential in developmental aspect were exerted fully
Generalized definition a individual has not only obtained full development in physiological aspect, but also put up many mature behaviors.
Content of growth and development Physiological Cognitive Social Affective Spiritual Moral
Basic principles of growth and development 1) Persistent, in sequence, regular, predicted. 2) Common development process 3) Passing each developmental stage in unique manner and speed.
4) Character and definite developmental tasks in each developmental stage 5) Development in infant phase will affect the following basic attitude, temperament, life style and behaviors. 6) Development is obtained by gradual maturation and constant learning.
Factors that affect growth and development Heredity Environment
4. Self-concept of human being (1) Definition of self-concept (2) Generation of self-concept (3) Components of self-concept (4) Importance of self-concept
Definition of self-concept a person’s attitude towards to himself (herself )
Generation of self-concept the combination of other’s opinion to a person and a person’s self-detection and self-cognition.
Components of self-concept • Body image • Roleperformance • Personal identity • Self-esteem
Importance of positive self-concept (a) Affecting one’s thoughts and behaviors (b) Affecting one’s choices (c) Affecting other’s attitude tooneself (d) Affecting one’s ability of meeting an emergency when one is in the face of various changes
Environment 1.Definition of environment 2.Classification of environment 3.Relationship among environment, human being and health
Definition of environment Roy’s definition of environment Henderson’s definition of environment
Roy’s definition of environment the summation of all factors that surround and affect the behaviors and development of individual or collectivity.
Henderson’s definition of environment a general name of all external factors that affect the life and development of organism.
Classification of environment 1. Internal environment 2. External environment
External environment Natural environment • Humanistic-social environment Therapeutic environment
Natural environment • Physical environment Biological environment
Humanistic-social environment (a) the number of population (b) cultural education (c) interpersonal relationship (d) scientific management (e) medical care services system
Therapeutic environment Definition • Function Requirement
Definition It is an environment that created by professionals aimed to fit the recovery of clients’ physiological and psychological health
Functions • To influence clients’ feeling (b) To influence the course and degree of disease’s recovery.