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Basic concepts in nursing science

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  1. Basic concepts in nursing science Li Xiaohan School of Nursing China Medical University

  2. Introduction • Human being • Environment • Health • Nursing

  3. Introduction Definition of nursing science Four basic concepts that affect and determine the nursing practice

  4. Human being Environment Health Nursing

  5. Human being The human being is a uniform whole Basic needs of human being Growth and development of human being Self-concept of human being

  6. 1. The human being is a uniform whole (1) Concept of a whole (2) The uniform whole of human being (3) The human being is an open system (4) The scope of human being in nursing

  7. The uniform whole of human being Physiological Psychological Social Spiritual Cultural

  8. The human being is a open system Closed system Open system

  9. The scope of human being in nursing Individual Family Community Society

  10. Basic goal of human being To maintain the balance of organism Balance among subsystems of organism Balance between organism and its environment (internal and external environment)

  11. 2. Basic needs of human being (1)Definition of basic needs (2)Types of basic needs (3)Characteristics of basic needs (4)Factors that affect meeting needs (5)The theory related to basic needs

  12. (1) Definition of basic needs Need Basic needs of human being

  13. (2) Types of basic needs Physiological needs Socialneeds Affective needs Cognitive needs Spiritual needs

  14. (3) Characteristics of basic needs 1)Approximately same basic needs 2)The importance of each need for each person is different 3)All the basic needs are interconnected and interactive

  15. (4) Factors that affect meeting needs Physiological factors Emotionalfactors Knowledgeandintellectfactors Socialfactors

  16. (4) Factors that affect meeting needs Environmental factors Individualfactors Culturalfactors

  17. (5) The theory related to basic needs —Maslow’s hierarchy theory of Basic needs for Human Being

  18. Maslow’s theory (a) Basic content (b) Basisforneed’shierarchy (c) Generalrules (d) Significancetonursing

  19. Basic content Physiological needs Safetyneeds Loveandbelongingnessneeds Self-esteemneeds Needsforself-actualization

  20. Basis for need’s hierarchy • Importance of needs Sequenceofneed’sappearance

  21. Significance to nursing • a) To identify client’s unmet needs • b) To realizeandunderstandclient’swords • andbehaviors • c) To predictclient’sunspokenneeds

  22. Significance to nursing • d) To collectclient’sdatacomprehensively • e) To putclient’snursingproblemsin • adequate order

  23. 3. Growth and development of human being (1) Definition of growth and development (2)Contentofgrowthanddevelopment (3)Basicprinciplesofgrowthanddevelopment (4)Factorsthataffectgrowthanddevelopment

  24. Definition of growth and development Growth Development Maturation

  25. Growth: • a increase on amount • in physiological aspect

  26. Development: Definition of development A changing process in physical and psychological aspect along with age’s increase and interaction between individual and its environment.

  27. Characteristicsofdevelopment: • in order • predicted • persistent • as aresultof learning and a symbol of maturation • holistic(physiological, psychological, social )

  28. Maturation: Narrow definition Generalized definition

  29. Narrow definition the process of the growth in physiological aspect and the potential in developmental aspect were exerted fully

  30. Generalized definition a individual has not only obtained full development in physiological aspect, but also put up many mature behaviors.

  31. Content of growth and development Physiological Cognitive Social Affective Spiritual Moral

  32. Basic principles of growth and development 1) Persistent, in sequence, regular, predicted. 2) Common development process 3) Passing each developmental stage in unique manner and speed.

  33. 4) Character and definite developmental tasks in each developmental stage 5) Development in infant phase will affect the following basic attitude, temperament, life style and behaviors. 6) Development is obtained by gradual maturation and constant learning.

  34. Factors that affect growth and development Heredity Environment

  35. 4. Self-concept of human being (1) Definition of self-concept (2) Generation of self-concept (3) Components of self-concept (4) Importance of self-concept

  36. Definition of self-concept a person’s attitude towards to himself (herself )

  37. Generation of self-concept the combination of other’s opinion to a person and a person’s self-detection and self-cognition.

  38. Components of self-concept • Body image • Roleperformance • Personal identity • Self-esteem

  39. Importance of positive self-concept (a) Affecting one’s thoughts and behaviors (b) Affecting one’s choices (c) Affecting other’s attitude tooneself (d) Affecting one’s ability of meeting an emergency when one is in the face of various changes

  40. Environment 1.Definition of environment 2.Classification of environment 3.Relationship among environment, human being and health

  41. Definition of environment Roy’s definition of environment Henderson’s definition of environment

  42. Roy’s definition of environment the summation of all factors that surround and affect the behaviors and development of individual or collectivity.

  43. Henderson’s definition of environment a general name of all external factors that affect the life and development of organism.

  44. Classification of environment 1. Internal environment 2. External environment

  45. External environment Natural environment • Humanistic-social environment Therapeutic environment

  46. Natural environment • Physical environment Biological environment

  47. Humanistic-social environment (a) the number of population (b) cultural education (c) interpersonal relationship (d) scientific management (e) medical care services system

  48. Therapeutic environment Definition • Function Requirement

  49. Definition It is an environment that created by professionals aimed to fit the recovery of clients’ physiological and psychological health

  50. Functions • To influence clients’ feeling (b) To influence the course and degree of disease’s recovery.