Method Concept in Language Teaching(T. Rogers, 2001) The notion of a systematic set of teaching practices based on a particular theory of language and language learning
Method Concept in Language Teaching The quest for better methods pursued by teachers and applied linguists
Methods and Approaches • Methods=fixed teaching systems with prescribed techniques and practices • Approaches=language teaching philosophies that can be interpreted and applied in a variety of different ways in the classroom
Theory Methodology Practice What Various design Actual teaching language features of and learning is and how language practices language is instruction learned e.g. -objectives -syllabus -materials -types of activities -roles of teachers and students
The Age of Methods (1950s-1980s) Situational Language Audio-Lingualism Teaching (UK)(Am) Silent Way Suggestopedia Community Language Learning Total Physical Response
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) (1980s ………) • Learners learn a language through using it to communicate. • Authentic meaningful communication should be the goal of classroom activities. • Fluency is an important dimension of communication.
Communicative Language Teaching (Contd.) • Communication involves the integration of different language skills. • Learning is a process of creative construction and involves trial and error.
Communicative Spin-off Approaches • The Natural Approach • Cooperative Language Learning • Content-based Teaching • Task-based Teaching
Teacher Roles Audio-Lingual Method, Natural Approach, TPR, and Suggestopedia Teacher = ideal language model and commander of classroom activity Communicative Language Teaching and Cooperative Language Learning Teacher = background facilitator and learning partner
First Language and Second Language Acquisition TPR and Natural Approach Second languagepedagogy must model itself on first language acquisition Silent Way and Suggestopedia Adults learn language in a fashion different from children. (due to different brains, different interests, different background knowledge, different timing constraints, beliefs, values, attitudes, needs,……)
Perception VS. Production Audio-Lingual Method, Silent Wayand Community Language Learning Learners should begin to communicate to use a new language actively on first contact. Natural Approach An initial and prolonged period of reception (listening and reading) should precede any attempts at production (speaking and writing).
What’s now? What’s Next? • Teacher/Learner Collaborates Matchmaking techniques will be developed which will link learners and teachers with similar styles and approaches to language learning. • Method Synergistics Crossbreeding elements from various methods into a common program of instruction seems an appropriate way to find those practices which best support effective learning. One might call such an approach “Disciplined Eclecticism.”
What’s Now? What’s Next? (Contd.) 3. Content-Basics Content-based instruction assumes that language learning is a by-product of focus on meaning and that content topics should be chosen to best match learner needs and interests and to promote optimal development of second language competence. 4. Multintelligencia Gardner (1983) proposed eight intelligence types that language educators have later made use of in designing classroom language-rich task types.
Intelligence Types and Appropriate Educational Activities • Linguistic: lectures, worksheets, word games, journals, debates • Logical: puzzles, estimations, problem solving • Spatial: charts, diagrams, graphic organizers, drawing, films • Bodily: hands-on, mime, craft, demonstrations
Intelligence Types and Appropriate Educational Activities (Contd.) • Musical: singing, poetry, Jazz chants, mood music • Interpersonal: group work, peer tutoring, class projects • Intrapersonal: reflection, interest centers, personal value tasks • Naturalist: field trips, show and tell, plant and animal projects (Adapted from Christenson, 1998)
What’s Now? What’s Next?(Contd.) 5. Total Functional Response New leads in discourse and genre analysis, schema theory, pragmatics and systemic/functional grammar are gaining popularity again among applied linguists and teachers. 6. Strategopedia “Learning to learn” is the key theme in an instructional focus on language learning strategies. Research findings suggest that strategies can be taught to language learners, that learners will apply them in language learning tasks and such application does produce significant gains in language learning.
What’s Now? What’s Next? (Contd.) 7. O-Zone Whole Language Wholelanguage proponents have claimed that one way to increase learner awareness of how language works is through a course of study that incorporates broader engagement with language, including authentic content, process writing, and learner collaboration.
Promising Teaching and Learning Methods • Cooperative Language Learning • Experiential Learning • Content-based Learning • Problem-based Learning • Task-based Learning
I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand. Confucius
The Brain–Based Learning Theory • Learning process is very important. • Emotions are critical to learningHow learners feel is very important to their learning process. If a learner is enthusiastic and doesn’t feel stressed, learning will take place. If the conditions are negative and the learner doesn’t feel safe, learning will not take place.
Learning can be meaningful as the learner is engaged in learning by doing. The student brain of today is quite different from the one of 15 years ago. Today’s children spend much more time with TV. and electronic media than with their parents.
Inter Language 1 development communication Vygotsky (1896-1934) Thinking Learning proximal and intra 4 Zone of communication 2 3 Dialectic
Inter Communication • Experientialism: The Learner and the Mediation • (TALKs, TASKs, TEXTs: Donato 2005) • Teachers and Teaching Assistants • Peers in the team, the class, the learning community, Special Interest Group-SIG • Media: books, journals, websites, e-communication
Intra Communication • Reflection: The process to react or reflect the student’s thoughts and attitudes on something. • Reaction to talks, tasks, texts and other things: pictures, photos, maps, charts, tables, facts and figures by writing or speaking. • - What do you see? • - Can you tell me about it? • - Describe it as you see. • - How do you think about it? Why?
Dialectic • To be mixing with people of different experiences, different backgrounds, different attitudes, different schools of thoughts. • Real World Situation: You cannot choose your partners or members of the team. We are not always compatible, but we can always work it out. • Learning to work as a dialectic dynamic team. • Bringing out the best of your team members. • Thinking more thoroughly and making decision more cautiously. There is always a BUT about it.
Zone of Proximal Development – ZPD (From ASD to PSD) • Every being is a potential learner. One starts from his own Actual Stage of Development-ASD and will move towards his Potential Stage of Development-PSD. • From ASD to PSD, one can monitor and be monitored to develop. • If the being learns to learn, s/he will seek for nourishing learning environments that will help them sustain and retain the ability to learn. • The learning retention will help them to reach their ideal stage of development.
Motivation and Language Learning According to educational psychologists, there are three major sources of motivation in learning (Fisher, 1990). 1. the learner’s natural interest: intrinsic satisfaction 2. the teacher/institution/employment: extrinsic reward 3. success in the task: the combination of satisfaction and reward (self-esteem and a sense of competence as crucial factors affecting motivation)
High achievement • Improvement in ability • Greater effort • High motivation • Positive self–perception • I can do it. • I can’t do it. • Poor self-perception (of low ability) • Low motivation • Low effort • Low achievement Self-esteem and a sense of competence as crucial factors affecting motivation
Attribution theory (Weiner, 1986) In order to take responsibility for our own learning, we must believe that we have control over learning success and failure. Four causes of the learner’s success and failure are: 1. Ability (internal and stable) 2. Task difficulty (external and stable) 3. Effort (internal, changeable and under the learner’s control) 4. Luck (external, changeable but not under the learner’s control)
If you’re not motivated to do something you know you need to do, just keep telling yourself, “If a thing is worth doing, it’s worth doing badly.” Take action now.
Keyfeatures of Experiential English 1. Learning is an active process (learning by doing) 2. Learning is experiential (first-hand).“Learn to use and use to learn” 3. Focus is on the process.
Key features (continued) 4. Constructing meaning is mental reflective activity. 5. Learning is a social activity and contextual. 6. One needs knowledge to learn.
Key features (continued) 7. It takes time to learn. For significant learning, we need to revisit, ponder new ideas, try them out, and play with as well as use them. 8. Motivation is essential for learning. 9. Evaluation is conducted through formative continuous assessment.
Use of dictionary Language functions Self/peer editing Emergent grammar Group project Information search Individual project Learning by doing Schema building Class activities Oral presentations Homework assignments Reflections
5500111 • Course Objectives : • By the end of the course, students should be able to do the following: • Communicate effectively in daily life using the four language skills • Collect information from various kinds of sources, analyze and synthesize the information to broaden existing knowledge and present important issues in oral and/or written form.
Skills involved: • Team skills • Language skills • Computer skills • Information search skills • Planning / problem solving skills • Interpersonal / intrapersonal sills
Skills involved: (contd.) • Time management skills • Personality development • Self-discipline • Ability to learn from others and their own experiences • Self-appraisal
Ranking of Students’ Attitudes towards the course 1.Abilities to work in groups 2. Creativity 3. Classroom activities promoting self-learning 4. Problem-solving 5. Application of language skills 6. Learning through reflections 7.More active roles of learners
The Theory of Social Context(Carl Rogers, 1969) • The theory stresses: • mutual respect • shared responsibility for learning and mutual commitment to goals • effective communication and feedback
The Theory of Social Context (Carl Rogers, 1969)Contd. 4. co-operation and willingness to negotiate conflicts 5. sense of security in the classroom
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are: • physiological, the basic needs for food, water and shelter • safety or survival needs, such as the needs for security and protection • social, such as the need for a sense of belonging or love
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are: • 4. esteem, such as the need for self- esteem, recognition and status • 5. self-actualization, which is the highest order and includes needs for self-development and realization
Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education • The effective teacher • encourages contacts between students and faculty. • develops reciprocity and co-operation among students. • uses active learning techniques.
4. gives prompt feedback. 5. emphasizes time on task. 6. communicates high expectations. 7. respects diverse talents and ways of learning. (Chickering and Gamson, 1989 cited by R.G Tiberius and J.M. Billson, 1991)
What he hopes for in a classroom: A six-point summary (Stevick, 1996) • Three hopes for students • He wants students to be involved. • He wants students to feel comfortable while involved. • He wants students to be listening to one another as well as to the teacher.