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The Twenties

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  1. The Twenties

  2. Post-War America 1919 – returning veterans have difficulty finding work; US disillusioned in aftermath of the War Most wanted to return to “normalcy”, rejected both internationalism and progressivism Biggest problem: lack of jobs

  3. The Red Scare A reaction against radical political and economic movements; targeted political activists and union organizers Ex: the International Workers of the World (IWW)

  4. The Red Scare Causes: reaction to the Russian Revolution and communist movements in Europe disillusionment after WW I labor unrest; major strikes in 1919 and 1920

  5. The Red Scare Meant to suppress “anti-American” groups like the Socialists and other radical organizations Meetings broken up Leaders arrested IWW Rally in New York

  6. The Red Scare Led to rise of the nativist groups, particularly the Ku Klux Klan Highest membership in their history

  7. The Red Scare Acts of terrorism: Sept., 1920 – bombs set off on Wall Street, 38 people killed

  8. The Red Scare “Palmer Raids” – round up of radicals, led by Atty. Gen. A. Mitchell Palmer Created FBI to monitor activities of those suspected of being “un-American”; directed by J. Edgar Hoover

  9. The Red Scare Also targeted immigrants suspected of disloyalty or radical politics Case of Sacco and Vanzetti (1921 – 1926) Suspected radicals; arrested for murder, executed despite lack of evidence Worldwide movement over their innocence

  10. The Red Scare What ended the Red Scare: creation of groups opposing government restrictions (American Civil Liberties Union) return of economic prosperity scandals in the Klan and other groups Protest against Palmer Raids, NY, 1921 ACLU founder Roger Baldwin

  11. Prohibition!(what a great idea!) Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

  12. Prohibition Passage of the Volstead Act led to illegal manufacture of alcohol (“bootlegging”) Government crackdown on booze Attendance at Mass up 25%!

  13. Prohibition Rise of the “speakeasy” Miss Atwood

  14. Prohibition Rise of organized crime; Al Capone in Chicago

  15. The Modern vs. the Traditional Two conflicting themes in the 20s: modern vs. traditional values; coincided during the decade Evangelist Billy Sunday Mrs. Allard

  16. The Modern vs. the Traditional The “Scopes Monkey Trial” – HS teacher John Scopes arrested in TN for teaching evolution Opposing attorneys Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan (again!)

  17. The “Scopes Monkey Trial” - 1926 Trial broadcast live on radio; highlight was Darrow questioning Bryan as expert witness Darrow Bryan Scopes found guilty, fined $100, forbidden to teach in TN again Bryan considers return to politics but dies one week after end of trial

  18. The “New Morality” Emphasized fast living and materialism less inhibited than before More interested in fun (otherwise known as “sin”)

  19. Modern Consumer Items Bought mostly on credit; eventual problems Growth of auto industry

  20. Modern Consumer Items Other popular items: (to keep the little woman happy!)

  21. The “Talkie” First movie with sound: The Jazz Singer with Al Jolson Not exactly politically correct

  22. Films • Silent Films • Became popular in 1903 • The Mark of Zorro • “Talkies” • The Jazz Singer • 1927 • First talking movie

  23. Dancing • Dance Marathons • 1923 • Extremely popular • Swing Dancing • Charleston • Lindy Hop

  24. Celebrities in the 1920s Charles Lindbergh and the Spirit of St. Louis First man to cross the Atlantic solo; 33 hours, no pee pee breaks

  25. Charlie Chaplin Rudolph Valentino Lou Gehrig Babe Ruth Celebrities in the 20s Mary Pickford Red Grange Roscoe “Fatty” Arbuckle

  26. Politics Harding vs. Cox: US rejects activist govt.; elects Harding in a landslide Noteworthy: Dem VP Franklin D. Roosevelt

  27. Warren G. Harding Former Ohio Senator and newspaper publisher; represented a “return to normalcy” for many voters Inactive president; liked to gamble, drink, and chase skirts; very popular with American people The smokin’ hot Florence Harding

  28. The Harding “Administration” Harding mainly a figurehead; govt. attempts to roll back progressive reforms; a return to laissez-faire Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon drops income tax to near zero and restores the Tariff to near record levels (Fordney-McCumber) Dropped anti-trust activity Anti-labor

  29. Foreign Policy of the 20s Return to isolationism and beginning of arms reductions with Europe Washington Conference led to arms limitations Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) outlaws war as a foreign policy

  30. The Harding “Administration” Considered one of the most corrupt in history Atty. Gen. Harry Daugherty tried for selling pardons; acquitted Sec. of the Interior Albert Fall convicted for taking bribes from oil companies to drill on govt. land; called Teapot Dome Biggest scandal of the 20s

  31. I have no trouble with my enemies. But my friends, they're the ones who keep me walking the floor at nights! I don't know much about Americanism, but it's a damn good word with which to carry an election. God, what a job! Death of Harding (Aug. 23, 1923)

  32. Calvin Coolidge Most inert president of all-time Total opposite of Harding Said little, did little maintained status quo 1924 – lowest turnout ever 1928 – “I do not choose to run”; declines to run for another term

  33. 1928 Election Herbert Hoover vs. Al Smith Problems with the Smith candidacy: Yankee accent (first campaign on the radio) a “wet” (anti- Prohibition) first Catholic candidate in history

  34. 1928 Election Hoover wins; even some Southern states vote Republican (first time since Reconstruction); biggest landslide yet