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Fish Morphology

Fish Morphology. Classification Scheme of the Vertebrates. Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Agnatha Class Chondrichthyes Class Osteichthyes Class Amphibia Class Reptilia Class Aves Class Mammalia. Chordate Characteristics. Chondrichthyes (370). Placoderm

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Fish Morphology

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  1. Fish Morphology

  2. Classification Scheme of the Vertebrates Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Agnatha Class Chondrichthyes Class Osteichthyes Class Amphibia Class Reptilia Class Aves Class Mammalia

  3. Chordate Characteristics

  4. Chondrichthyes (370) Placoderm (395-345) Ostracoderm (510-=350 mybp) (360) Osteichthyes (395) lamprey & hagfish

  5. Jaw Development agnathostome gnathostome 1st appeared 400 mya

  6. Basic Anatomy Class Agnatha • Possess medial nostril, medial fins, notocord rather than vertebral column • 7 or more pr gill pouches present • Light sensitive pineal eye • Fertilization external • Cartilaginous skeleton • Lack jaws, paired fins, scales • GI track w/out stomach • Lampreys and hagfish • 100 species

  7. Class Agnatha Lamprey ammocoetes

  8. Class Agnatha Hagfish

  9. Basic Anatomy Class Chondrichthyes Sharks, skates, rays

  10. Basic Anatomy Class Chondrichthyes Sharks, skates, rays • Posses jaws with teeth, cartilaginous skeleton, paired fins • Scales (denticles) have same origin and composition as teeth • Possesses 5-7 gills • Spiral valve intestine • Ureoosmotic strategy • Electroreception • Lateral line • No swim bladder • Heterocercal tail • Relatively unchanged (480 mybp)

  11. Basic Anatomy

  12. Basic Anatomy Class Osteichthyes

  13. Basic Anatomy Class Osteichthyes • Posses jaws with teeth, bony skeleton, paired fins • 4 paired gill arches covered by operculum • Intestine- simple, no spiral valve • Swim bladder • Lateral line • Homocercal tail • Scales- cycloid, ctenoid

  14. Basic Anatomybony fish

  15. Internal Anatomy anus

  16. Common Measurements

  17. Basic Anatomy Latimeria • Swim bladder modified to lungs • Paired appendages • May have given rise to terrestrial tetrapods • Bony head • Scales and teeth

  18. Fish Adaptations and Life Styles • General Life Style Categories • a. pelagic cruisers • occurring in water column far away from the bottom (benthic) environment • often referred to as "blue water" • includes tuna, billfish, blue sharks, mackerel sharks (great whites and mako sharks)

  19. b. demersal • bottom-associated fishes, but not usually sitting on the bottom • rely on the benthic environment as a source of food, place to reproduce, and/or place of refuge, etc. • includes most reef fishes (e.g., butterfly fishes, surgeon fishes, wrasses, parrot fishes, etc.)

  20. c. benthic • bottom-dwelling fishes that spend the majority of time sitting on the bottom • includes flatfishes, lizard fishes, many scorpion fishes, many hawkfishes, gobies, etc.

  21. Body shape 1) fusiforma) = torpedo-shaped b) allows minimal drag while swimmingc) best shape for a pelagic cruise tuna

  22. 2) compressed • laterally flattened (e.g., butterflyfishes & surgeonfishes) • allows for maneuverability in surge environments • useful for demersal fishes that hover above the reef • exception seen in flatfishes that lie on one side of the body as benthic fishes

  23. 3) elongated or attenuated • long body (e.g., trumpetfish, cornetfish, eels) • seen in demersal fish that either hover motionless in the water) • seen also in benthic fishes (e.g., eels) that hide in holes in the reef

  24. 4) depressed • dorso-ventrally flattened (e.g., frogfishes, scorpionfishes & gobies) • broad ventral surface facilitates resting on the bottom • seen in many benthic fishes

  25. Body Coloration • 1) source of color • pigment color - chromatophores for yellows, reds, oranges, browns, & blacks • structural color - iridophores (reflection) & light refraction for blues, silvers, & rainbows

  26. 2) patterns • a) countershading • dark blue or black dorsally, white or silvery ventrally • results in blue water "camouflage“ • observed most frequently in pelagic cruisers

  27. b) camouflage • matching the background coloration • usually involves having irregular dark blotches and spots • typically seen in benthic fishes, especially benthic ambush predators (e.g., frogfishes, gobies, & many scorpionfishes) • some fishes (e.g., flatfishes) may exhibit rapid color changes in response to different backgrounds

  28. b) camouflage • 5) matching downwelling light Hatchet fish Cookie cutter shark

  29. c) disruptive coloration 1) color pattern breaks up the silhouette of the fish 2) may involve dark bars across the eye and tail region 3) seen in many demersal fishes such as butterfly fishes

  30. d) bars and stripes 1) bars are vertical (e.g., manini) 2) stripes are horizontal (e.g., ta'ape) 3) seen frequently in schooling demersal fishes 4) may confuse potential predators by making it difficult to select individual prey from the school

  31. e) misdirection 1) false eye spots, etc. 2) observed in many demersal butterfly fishes

  32. f) advertising coloration 1) bright, obvious color patterns 2) possible functions a) advertising a cleaning station (e.g., cleaner wrasses) b) advertising a warning (e.g., nohu) c) advertising for mates (e.g., male parrotfishes) Hawaiian cleaner wrasse Nohu

  33. g) mimicry 1) imitating other creatures 2) seen in a few demersal and benthic fishes 3) examples a) blenny (Aspidontus taeniatus) mimics cleaner wrasses b) shortnose wrasse mimics Potter's angel which sports a defensive spine

  34. g) mimicry 4) leafy sea dragon (Australia)

  35. h) uniform red coloration • most often observed in deep-dwelling or night active demersal fishes • examples include opakapaka, oweoweo, menpachi, & squirrelfishes

  36. i) noctural versus diurnal color changes j) male versus female color differences k) juvenile versus adult color differences Dragon wrasse Stoplight parrotfish Bluehead wrasse

  37. Fish Anatomy and Physiology

  38. Fish locomotion

  39. Types of Fins • The source of propulsion for virtually all fish comes from: • Undulation of the body • Paired Fins: • Pectoral • Pelvic • Unpaired Fins: • Caudal • Dorsal • Anal • A combination of the above

  40. Anguilliform swimming (Undulation)

  41. Dorsal & Anal Fin Propulsion

  42. Anal Fin Propulsion Black ghost knifefish

  43. Pectoral Fin Propulsion

  44. Dorsal fin Bowfin Sea horse Knifefish

  45. Pectoral Fin Frogfish

  46. Walking catfish

  47. Mudskipper

  48. Hydrodynamics: Effects of shape on drag Disk Sphere teardrop Laminar flow and turbulence

  49. Slowest Fish Ewa Blenny 0.5 mph

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